Open Access

MEASURING TRANSPARENCY TO IMPROVE GOOD GOVERNANCE OF PHARMACEUTICALS IN INDONESIA (2013)

Abstract

A national survey has been conducted to assess thetransparency in public pharmaceutical sector in Indonesia. Thesurvey was conducted during 2007, and writer was appointedby the government as independent assessor. The assessmentcovered five functions of government in pharmaceutical sector,i.e., registration, control of promotion, inspection of production,selection of essential medicines, and central procurement ofnational buffer stock. Key informants were selected based onfirst-hand knowledge on each function, representinggovernment, pharmaceutical company, academe/professionals,and NGOs, i.e. 10 informants for each registration, control ofpromotion, inspection of production, selection of essentialmedicines, and 20 informants for central procurement. Datawere collected by means of in-depth interviews, using sets ofquestionnaires provided by the WHO. Findings were analyzedfollowing a scoring system that ranging from zero to ten. Thesmaller the score indicates in-transparency, and thereforeindicates the more vulnerability for corruption.The results showed that the registration process scored 7.2,control of promotion scored 7.6, inspection of production scored8.7, selection of essential medicines scored only 5.5, and thecentral procurement scored 7.0. In general, it is appreciatedthat the functions of registration, control of promotion,inspection, and procurement were well governed, but theselection of essential medicines obtained a low score. Therehas been remarkable lacking of written procedures that publiclyavailable. In regard to the selection function, there is no writtenprocedure in every process of selection, i.e., selection criteriaof the revision committee member, written criteria for application,written criteria for addition, substitution and deletion, and writtenprocedures of decision making. Declaration of interest is tosome extents, lacking from most functions. It wasrecommended that the Government should establish writtenprocedures of each function and make them publicly available,establish mechanism to minimize conflict of interest in eachfunction i.e., by means of declaration of interest, and establishmeasures to fill up regulatory gaps. By the time of publication,corrective actions in all five functions have been made and atthe time being the Government is ready for re-assessment.Key words: transparency, pharmaceuticals, good governance,public sector, vulnerability for corruption

Languages

Indonesian

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Universitas Gadjah Mada Online Journals

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