in: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics
Political scientists are increasingly using experiments to study African politics. Experimental methods help scholars to overcome two central research challenges: potential bias in responses to survey questions (social desirability bias), and establishing the effect of X on Y (causality). Regarding survey response bias, experimental methods have been used to study sensitive topics such as ethnic favoritism, clientelism, corruption, and vote buying. In terms of causality, experiments have helped to estimate the effects of programs aimed at enhancing the quality of democracy or public service delivery. Identifying the causes of the political behavior is critical to understanding the "nuts and bolts" of African politics. For policymakers, knowledge of what works to promote democratic accountability ensures the efficient allocation of scarce resources.