"It may seem sometimes as if a culture of peace does not stand a chance against the culture of war, the culture of violence and the cultures of impunity and intolerance. Peace may indeed be a complex challenge, dependent on action in many fields and even a bit of luck from time to time. It may be a painfully slow process, and fragile and imperfect when it is achieved. But peace is in our hands. We can do it."-- Kofi Annan The objective of this thesis is to discuss the impact of United States involvement in conflict resolution in Africa. The argument is that countries facing violent conflict benefit from U.S. involvement in conflict resolution. To evaluate this statement, the first section of this thesis examines the U.S. interest in engaging in conflicts in Africa and the significance of focusing on conflict resolution for Africa. Further sections explore different U.S. strategies to resolve conflict, as well as the outcomes of U.S. involvement and the consequences of non-involvement. The author concludes that the U.S. plays a crucial role in the peace building process, however, historical experiences have demonstrated that the
Dinah began her environmental management career in Budapest, Hungary in 1992 when she launched the first office paper recycling system in Budapest office buildings. Working with the Ministry for Environment, Budapest City Government, business and multiple environmental NGO’s, she promoted interest and activity in environmental protection during the early years of Hungary’s transition to a market economy. From 1993 to 1995 she worked as Environmental Manager for Tetra Pak in Hungary. In 1995 she returned to the US to do her masters in law and diplomacy at the Fletcher School, Tufts University, focusing on issues of trade and environment and corporate environmental management. Since then she has been exploring the financial impacts of corporate environmental policy, and helped develop environment, health and safety accounting systems at Baxter International. She is working on her doctorate at Harvard School of Public Health, where she is developing a method for analyzing human toxicity associated with industrial emissions to aid financial analysts and social fund managers in determining the social impacts of investment opportunities. 1 A series of empirical analyses in the United States from 1993-2001 reviewed here provide insight into whether there is a systematic relationship between environmental and financial performance and whether it is strong enough to inform both regulatory and firm environmental strategy. The findings seem to imply that capital markets react long-term to environmental performance. However, a closer look at the research indicates that U.S. capital markets pay attention to environmental news, but that it is a short-term reaction and will not necessarily affect long-term returns. Econometric concerns and model misspecification consistently undermine the quality of findings.