Property in the field of the environment can serve as an argument for better Protection measures or as a reason to make protection measures diffi cult in case that the owner does not agree with the measures. In another words, the property can serve as a reason for and against the (state or private) environmental protection measures. It can also be used against authorities and against private persons, i.e. polluters, factories etc. This article explore different viewpoints on how the objection of property (a use of it, its protection, a protection of its value, etc.) can be used in different legal relationship, what kind of legal proceedings are possible in case of administrative law (public law remedies) and in private law (private law remedies).
The author's comprehensive research project, of which this article is but an introductory outline, inquires into the kind of history written out by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). In order to investigate the interrelation between criminal law & history, the author faced the following question: what would the history of the disintegration of Yugoslavia & of conflicts in its territory look like if all we had were the judgments of the Hague Tribunal? The author bases his reply on an analysis of first-instance judgments of the Trial Chamber, from which he singles out "historical facts," & rejects the reflections of the Chamber on legal & procedural issues. As a model case he uses the first ICTY judgment pronounced against Dusko Tadic (the trial started on May 7, 1996, & the judgment was pronounced a year later). Although he estimates that the first judgment was not written in an optimal way, the author deems that most preliminarily established historical facts were relevant to historiography, & that, in particular, the judgment offers a universally acceptable notion of the history of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia & of socialist Yugoslavia. He is of the opinion that the extensive documentation of ICTY (the "Hague Tribunal") will have a major influence on the work of future generations of historians. Such a unique & replete archive of historical material is increasingly available to the public & to scientists through ICTY's online database. The most recent scientific works dealing with the former Yugoslavia also make use of the Tribunal's judgments & documentation. Scientists will have to pay due attention to the narratives included therein. Adapted from the source document.
Stanje našega planeta zbog naseljenosti, zagađenosti i ekološki nepovoljnih gospodarskih djelatnosti zahtijeva takvu etiku i pravo u kojima će biti osiguran status prirodnih entiteta i poštivan suodnos i ravnoteža među subjektima i stvarima u prostoru. Nova etika i pravo moraju pospješivati partnerstvo u okolišu time što će modificirati dosadašnje antropološke odnose, koji su u čovjeku imali izvor svega, u ekološke odnose i surazmjere koji se temelje na partnerstvu. Budući da prirodni entiteti nemaju svoje volje niti savjesti, a kamoli poslovne sposobnosti, treba razviti prirodno skrbništvo, to više što su neki prirodni entiteti, koji nisu pod posebnom zaštitom, ugroženi i više nego što to dopušta prirodna ravnoteža. Ekološko pravo trebalo bi razviti prirodno skrbništvo na taj način da pravne osobe prirodnog skrbništva imaju položaj stranki, koje bi bile učinkovite u postupcima pred državnim organima, u slučaju da je predmet spora interes prirode, njenih dijelova ili javnih dobara. ; Owing to the density of population, pollution and activities unfavourable to the ecology, the state of our planet requires the ethics and laws to ensure the state of natural entities as well as the respect in the relations and balance between the subjects and objects in the space. New ethics and laws must improve the partnership in environment by modifying the existing anthropological relations which have put the man in the centre of all activities into the environmental relations and proportions based on the partnership. As the natural entities do not have the willingness nor the consciousness, let alone the business capabilities, the guardianship attitude towards the nature should be developed all the more as some natural entities, not specifically protected, are endangered more than permissible by the balance in nature. Environmental law should be developing the guardianship towards the nature so that the legal guardians are in the position of the parties that could fight to be efficient in state court procedures in case the interest of nature, part of it or public properties are being disputed. ; Der Zustand unseres Planets verlangt wegen der Bevölkerungsdichte, der Verschmutzung und der ökologish ungünstigen wirtschaftlichen Tätigkerten eine solche Ethik und ein solches Recht, die den Status der natürlichen Entitäten sowie die Verhältnisse und das Gleichgewicht zwischen den Subjekten und den Angelegenheiten im Raum gewährleisten werden. Die neue Ethik und das neue Recht sollen die Partnerschaft in der Umwelt fördern, indem sie die bisherigen antropologischen Verhältnisse, die den Menschen als Quelle aller Sachen bereichneten, in ökologischen, auf Partnerschaft beruhende Vechältnisse modifizieren. Da die natürlichen Entitäten keinen eigenen Willen und kein Bewutsein besitzen, geschwerge den geschäftliche Fähigkeiten, soll eine natürliche Pflegschaft entwickelt werden, weil einige natürliche Entitäten, die such nicht unter besonderem Schutz befinden, in gröerem Ma bedroht sind, als es das natürliche Gleichgewicht zulät. Das ökologische Recht sollte die natürliche Pflegschaft so entwicheln, da Rechtssubjekte des natürlichen Pflegschaft die Rolle des Parteien haben, die in Verfahren vor den Staatsorganen erfolgreich wären, wehn es sich um dan Interesse der Natur, ihrer Teile und öffentlicher Güter handelt.
The paper provides a detailed overview of the existing relationship between the just war theory & international law. It stresses the fact that the two concepts were historically incompatible. The just War theory falls within ethics & appeals to superior principles that were not in accordance with the positivist law theory & the concept of sovereignty upon which public international law was founded. That incompatibility may at first seem as a paradox since the two concepts should be derived from a common base: the idea of justice. Further development of international law has clearly proved that law cannot be separated from the idea of justice & that is, to some extent, closely linked to some elements of natural law. The author concludes that in the domain of the use of force contemporary international law provides a legal frame, which is in accordance with the precepts of the just war theory. References. Adapted from the source document.
In the introductory part of the essay, the author looks into the connection between the establishment & attributes of the so-called state of law & the legal system of continental Europe. This is followed by his summary of the origins of the idea of the state of law & its historical setting. In the middle part of the essay the author offers a list of values, value principles & the premises of the so-called state of law with the corresponding conclusions about a marked, multilevel/multiple restricted meaning & scope of the (mostly) dogmatic, formal/legal principles of the so-called state of law. The author concludes the essay with a rough appraisal of the condition of the so-called state of art in the Republic of Croatia. 51 References. Adapted from the source document.
There are prima facie reasons why political parties should be recognized as public law persons of the Croatian legal system: Political parties play a leading role in the creation & implementation of the state's will. Continental European legal systems distinguish between public & private law: the Croatian Constitution prescribes that political parties are associations with the features typical of public law persons. What requires analysis is the nature & consequences of the public law personality of political parties. Aristotle's theory of justice is still a useful starting point for distinguishing between public & private law, & between public & private law persons. The theory demonstrates that both the political community & the economic market presuppose standards of conduct that regulate interaction of their members. The standards include two essential types of legal acts, namely, statutes, which are fundamental acts of public law, & contracts, which are fundamental acts of private law. The dichotomy of legal acts implies virtually all the criteria that Roman & Continental lawyers have found important for distinguishing public & private law (source, bindingness, hierarchy, interest, subjects, etc). The division of a legal system into private & public law can be positivized in several ways. However, a liberal, democratic, & social legal system ought to meet the following principles, which guarantee the public law status of political parties: explicit recognition of the public law personality; justiciability; constitutionality; transparency; democracy; solidarity. The principles are followed by the Draft Bill on Political Parties, which was prepared by the Croatian Law Center in May 2002 & was adopted, with some changes, by the Committee on Constitution, Rules of Order, & Political System of the Croatian Parliament in July 2002. 90 References. Adapted from the source document.
Rad obrađuje trenutno najaktualniju temu iz područja građanskopravne kolektivne zaštite. Naime, reformama Stečajnog zakona (njih sedam) kao i implementacijom Zakona o financijskom poslovanju i predstečajnoj nagodbi (s tri izmjene), čija je primjena počela tijekom 2012., hrvatsko insolvencijsko zakonodavstvo značajno je izmijenjeno. Ipak, indikativna metoda utvrđivanja činjenica pokazuje kako su stečajni i predstečajni postupci u odnosu na druge države u okruženju nešto kraći, ali su skuplji i s nižim stupanjem namirenja vjerovnika. Naravno, u odnosu na zemlje s razvijenim stečajnim sustavom, ovi pokazatelji su relativno lošiji. Uzimajući u obzir da na takve podatke pored samih zakonskih rješenja utječu i brojni izvansudski (institucionalni) čimbenici (nepovoljan društveni kontekst, problemi u platnom prometu, nezavidno stanje u domenu evidencije nekretnina i pokretnina, nedovoljan broj sudaca kojima je bilo povjereno vođenje stečajnog postupka, slaba obučenost stečajnih upravitelja, neadekvatni način njihovog financiranja i posljedično slaba motiviranost za rad), zakonodavac planira napraviti još jednu funkcionalizaciju Stečajnog zakona preuzimajući, nakon dvogodišnjeg eksperimentiranja iz Zakona o financijskom poslovanju i predstečajnoj nagodbi, odredbe o predstečajnoj nagodbi te vraćajući mnoge opcije u izradi stečajnog plana. Svakako smatramo bitnim istaknuti kako prostor koji ovdje imamo, ne dopušta detaljnu raščlambu ove problematike, pa smo prinuđeni ograničiti se isključivo, po mišljenju autora, na neke aspekte nove stečajne regulative. Ovaj rad je nastao u potporu Hrvatske zaklade za znanost u okviru projekta 6558 "Business and Personal Insolvency - the Ways to Overcome Excessive Indebtedness" ; The paper deals with the most current topic in the field of collective civil law protection. The reforms of the Bankruptcy Act (seven of them) as well as implementation of the Financial Operations and Pre-Bankruptcy Settlements Act (three amendments), which were implemented in 2012, have significantly altered Croatian insolvency legislation. Nevertheless, the indicative methods of determining the facts show that the bankruptcy and preliminary bankruptcy procedures, in relation to other countries in the region, are consuming less time. They are more expensive and have lower satisfaction from creditors. In comparison to countries with developed bankruptcy systems, Croatian regulations still need improvement. One has to take into consideration a substantial impact of multiple external, institutional factors on legislative solutions (unfavourable social context, problems in the payment system, the precarious recordings of immovable and movable property, an insufficient number of judges who were entrusted with the liquidation proceedings, weak training of bankruptcy administrators, inadequate methods of financing, and consequently weak motivation to work). The legislators are planning to make another functionalization of the Bankruptcy Act. His intention is, after two years of experimentation in the Financial Operations and Pre-Bankruptcy Settlements Act, to accept provisions on pre-bankruptcy settlements and reinstate many pre-existing options in the preparation of the reorganization plan. Since the existing framework is not allowing for a detailed analysis of the aforementioned subjects, one must emphasize that the space here does not permit a detailed analysis of these issues. Therefore, authors of this article will deal with subjects they see as relevant and essential for understanding key issues within the domain of the Bankruptcy Act. This work has been supported by the Croatian science foundation under the project number 6558 "Business and Personal Insolvency - the Ways to Overcome Excessive Indebtedness"
The author distinguishes between the antiquity's & Middle Ages' teachings on natural law & justice as a virtue & the modern-age Hobbes' theory of the prerequisites of the legal system. Hobbes' theory identifies the prerequisites of the legal system & describes the institution of legal constraint which guarantees the rule of law. The author points to the central historical difference between these paradigms. Finally, the author traces the evolution of Hobbes' paradigm in Kant's philosophy of right. Adapted from the source document.
U kratkom razdoblju između Otvorenog pisma Vijeća Instituta »Ruđer Bošković«, potpisanog 26. veljače 1954, i redovnoga zasjedanja Skupštine JAZU, sazvane za 16. ožujka 1954, Ivan Supek napisao je tekst, dosad ne samo neobjavljen nego i posve nepoznat, koji ovdje objavljujem uvjeren da taj tekst obogaćuje naše spoznaje o prijelomnom trenutku u povijesti Instituta »Ruđer Bošković« i u životu njegova utemeljitelja. Nakon moga izlaganja »Dva pisma Ivana Supeka Miroslavu Krleži: uz Otvoreno pismo Vijeća Instituta ‘Ruđer Bošković’ Skupštini JAZU 26. veljače 1954.« na Znanstvenom skupu o 100. obljetnici rođenja Ivana Supeka, održanom u Institutu »Ruđer Bošković« 19. svibnja 2015, dr. Ivan Supek, sin pokojnog akademika, prvo me obavijestio da u ostavštini njegova oca postoje dvije inačice jednoga teksta koji se odnosi na Otvoreno pismo, a potom mi ih poslao da ih proučim i dopustio da ih u transkripciji objavim, na čemu mu najsrdačnije zahvaljujem i ovom prilikom. Sva četiri snimka, priložena uz ovu uvodnu napomenu, također se objavljuju s dopuštenjem dr. Ivana Supeka. ; In a short period between the Open letter of the Council of the Ruđer Bošković Institute, signed on 26 February 1954, and the formal and electoral session of the JAZU Assembly, summoned for 16 March 1954, Ivan Supek wrote a text, not only unpublished until today but also completely unknown, which I here bring to light fully convinced that this document will illuminate our knowledge of the pivotal moment in the history of the Ruđer Bošković Institute and in the life of its founder. Upon my lecture on the correspondence of Ivan Supek and Miroslav Krleža which followed after the Open letter of the Institute’s Council to the JAZU Assembly on 26 February 1954, held on the Conference of centennial birth anniversary of Ivan Supek at the Ruđer Bošković Institute on 19 May 2015, Dr Ivan Supek, son of the late Academician, first informed me that his father’s legacy contained two versions of a text referring to the Open letter. He then mailed them to me for further investigation and gave me his permission for their publication in transcript, for which again I am kindly indebted. All four illustrations, enclosed to this introductory note, are also published by courtesy of Dr Ivan Supek.
The author deals with the background & the types of human rights in the era of globalization & looks into the proposals of their global institutionalization. His assumption is that the increased legal normatization of global legal regimes on the basis of human rights is in the rational interest of the actors of global law. There are five main ideas: the democratization of all states, the global institutionalization of the direct global civil law, the global federal republic, the international legal solutions &, the global law. The global institutionalization of human rights has been beset by various problems & it requires different approaches which should be seen as mutually corrective. The globally oriented weak publics are a kind of a forum in which individual solutions' relevance must be argued. They affect the globally operating strong publics. The author concludes that the demand for global justice remains a normative measure towards which public education & the public will must be oriented for the sake of the legal formulation of human rights. 45 References. Adapted from the source document.
Alternativni načini rješavanja sporova danas su prepoznati kao dobrodošlo sredstvo za ublažavanje međustranačke napetosti, ubrzanja postupka, kao i smanjenja parničnih troškova. Europska je komisija usvojila niz mjera koje predviđaju primjenu određenog oblika izvansudskih načina rješavanja sporova. U Republici Hrvatskoj cjeloviti pravni okvir za nesmetano odvijanje alternativnih načina rješavanja sporova prvi put je izrađen 2003. godine, kada je donesen Zakon o mirenju. Osim tim Zakonom, mirenje, kao postupak koji prethodi parnici, u Republici Hrvatskoj predviđa i niz drugih zakona, a neki od njih propisuju i obvezatnost njegove provedbe. Međutim, iako je postojanje pozitivnih iskustava stranaka postupkom mirenja značajno, programi dobrovoljnog mirenja i dalje pokazuju nisku stopu njegove iskorištenosti. S druge strane, iako obvezno mirenje može biti korisno, prema njemu se iznose i značajne kritike, stoga je cilj ovog rada istražiti u kojim će to slučajevima prethodna provedba postupka mirenja biti obvezatna te može li jedno takvo obvezivanje, s obzirom na svrhu samog postupka mirenja, uopće biti u skladu s pravom na pristup sudu. ; Alternative dispute resolutions are perceived as a useful means for mitigating inter-party tensions, speeding up the procedures and reducing litigation costs. The European Commission has adopted a series of measures aimed at implementation of a particular form of non-judicial means of dispute resolution. Comprehensive legal framework for stable functioning of alternative dispute resolution in the Republic of Croatia was created in 2003 when the new Mediation Act was passed. In addition to this law, dispute resolution as a procedure that precedes the trial is regulated by a number of other laws, some of them stipulating its obligatory enforcement. The rate of the cases solved in voluntary mediation in Croatia is still low. There is no doubt that mandatory mediation may be useful but on the other hand the question arises if rules on mandatory mediation have the capacity to prevent equitable access to justice. The primary aim of this paper is to examine different legal situations in which mediation is mandatory and ratio which stands behind it. The author will also analyse the extent to which rules on mandatory mediation are in accordance with the right of access to court. ; Alternative Weisen der Konfliktlösung sind heute als willkommene Mittel zur Milderung der Animosität zwischen den Parteien, zur Beschleunigung des Verfahrens und Verminderung von Verfahrenskosten erkannt. Europäische Kommission hat eine Reihe von Maßnahmen getroffen, die die Anwendung einer bestimmten Form der außergerichtlichen Lösung von Streitigkeiten anordnen. Zum ersten Mal wurde in der Republik Kroatien ein einheitlicher Rechtsrahmen für ungestörte Entwicklung der alternativen Weisen von Konfliktlösung im Jahr 2003 geschaffen, als das Mediationsgesetz erlassen wurde. Als einem Gerichtsverfahren vorläufendes Prozess wurde die Mediation außer von diesem Gesetz auch durch eine Reihe anderer Gesetze in der Republik Kroatien vorgesehen. In einigen dieser Gesetze wird auch die Verbindlichkeit der Durchführung des Mediationsprozesses geregelt. Obwohl positive Erfahrungen der Parteien in Bezug auf das Mediationsverfahren beträchtlich sind, weist die Analyse von Programmen der freiwilligen Mediation noch immer auf eine niedrige Stufe ihrer Nutzung hin. Andererseits wird die verbindliche Mediation trotz ihrer Nützlichkeit auch heftig kritisiert. Aus diesem Grunde ist das Ziel dieser Arbeit, zu untersuchen, in welchen Fällen die vorläufige Durchführung des Mediationsverfahrens verbindlich sein sollte und ob die Verbindlichkeit mit Rücksicht auf den Zweck des Mediationsprozesses mit dem Recht auf Beitritt zum Gericht überhaupt im Einklang steht.
The author looks at a book with the promising title Law and Revolution, particularly, promising to those prone to think about law strategically. Starting from the main points of the book & of some interpretations of legal history that qualify these points, the author then demonstrates how negligible appear to be the possibilities of strategic action in the renewal & development of Croatian law. Adapted from the source document.
Commenting on the article by R. Badinter (1996, this issue), the author contends that experts in international law are not broad-minded regarding the establishment of a state. Most legal experts take for granted the statements of the international judiciary on the existence of certain rules of general international law & consider them validated & indisputable. This fiction has been given support by states, since they uphold only those legal statements that suit their interests. The author analyses the Opinions of the Arbitration Committee on the process of the disintegration & the Criteria for the dissolution of the former Yugoslavia as well as the criteria for the creation of the new states. He considers this precedent as central for international judiciary law. Adapted from the source document.
The main proposition of this paper is that the Croatian legal framework for higher education fails to meet the criteria of the internal market of the EU. In the first part, the author draws a distinction between education as public good and education as service, and explains how EU law affects the regulatory autonomy of the Member States in the area of higher education. In the second part, the author analyses hitherto identified barriers to the exercise of market freedoms created by national legal frameworks of higher education. The third part discusses the Croatian legal framework and tests it against EU standards. The author concludes that deficiencies of Croatian higher education law are partly caused by the ignorance of policy makers and partly by the structural weakness of the negotiating process, where chapters are negotiated independently from one another and focused on formal fulfilment of benchmarks. Adapted from the source document.