Traditionally, Turkey has been known as a country of emigration. Starting from the early 1960s and well into the 1970s, large numbers of Turkish nationals migrated to western European countries, particularly West Germany. This emigration continued until recent times through family reunification schemes and the asylum track. However, more recently, Turkey has also become a country of transit to the European Union (EU) for irregular migrants from Asian countries such as Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iraq, Iran and Pakistan. Turkey is also becoming a destination for EU professionals and retirees as well as regular and irregular migrants from former Soviet Bloc countries. Furthermore, a growing number of transit migrants are stranded in Turkey. Finally, Turkey is a country of refuge for asylum seekers coming from neighbouring Middle East countries and beyond. Turkey's status as a 'transition country' and its efforts to become a member of the EU are creating pressures for an overhaul of its immigration and asylum Policies. Adapted from the source document.
This working paper contains the Policy oriented executive summary and the National report prepared by the IRPPS-CNR team in the framework of the European research project IDEA (Mediterranean and Eastern European countries as new immigration destinations in the European Union). The main aim of the project is the comparison of migration trends among European receiving countries to improve the understanding of the national migration experience. The report, after a short introduction devoted to the long Italian history of emigration, analyses trends and characteristics of international migration flows in the last decades as well as size and structure of the foreign population living in Italy. Migration and integration policies and the different impacts of foreign immigration are also considered.
Il presente Working paper contiene il Policy oriented executive summary e il rapporto nazionale preparati dal gruppo di lavoro dell’IRPPS-CNR nell’ambito del progetto di ricerca europeo IDEA (Mediterranean and Eastern European countries as new immigration destinations in the European Union). Lo scopo principale del progetto è il confronto delle tendenze del fenomeno tra i paesi europei d’immigrazione, per migliorare la conoscenza delle esperienze migratorie nazionali. Il rapporto, dopo una breve introduzione dedicata al nostro passato di paese d’emigrazione, analizza tendenze e caratteristiche dei flussi migratori internazionali negli ultimi decenni, ed esamina dimensioni e struttura della popolazione straniera residente in Italia. Vengono anche esaminate le politiche migratorie e di integrazione e le diverse conseguenze del fenomeno sulla società italiana.