This article provides an overview of the study of the European Union since the doldrums of the 1970s. We focus on three debates that have helped to shape the field. Has European integration centralised state control or is European integration part of a process of dispersion of authority? What is the role of identity in framing preferences over European integration? And, finally, is European integration part of a new political cleavage? We observe that the European Union is a moving target. It has a habit of throwing up new and unexpected facts which wrong-foot extant theories. We have no grounds for believing that this will not continue. Adapted from the source document.
and National Industrial Policy Although the implications of European Union membership have been the subject of intense political and academic enquiry in all fifteen member states, the actual impact of EU action on the member states remains curiously under-researched. This book, the first in a new series, The State and the European Union, will look at how the EU has affected traditional policy making in the member states through a study of a range of industrial, financial and service sectors. The authors investigate the impact of EU initiatives on the policies traditionally pursued by the four larger member states in these areas. In doing so they shed light on how national actors have responded to the growing importance of the EU and how relationships between actors—especially governments and state-owned companies—have been affected. The contributors use their findings to assess the impact of the EU on state autonomy and to evaluate claims that have been made about the consequences of European integration for the member states. In a domain where much of the literature concentrates on the functioning of EU institutions, offers summaries of what the EU has done or abstractly speculates on its nature, The European and National Industrial Policy offers a unique empirical and theoretically reflective investigation of the relationship between the Union and the member states.