in: Wiadomości statystyczne / Glówny Urza̜d Statystyczny, Polskie Towarzystwo Statystyczne: czasopismo Głównego Urze̜du Statystycznego i Polskiego Towarzystwa Statystycznego, Volume 62, Issue 5, p. 79-99
The aim of this paper is to analyse tax revenues and examine similarities of selected tax revenues (mainly VAT, CIT, PIT and excise duty) in the European Union countries. The analysis of the EU members concerns the period between 2003 (i.e. the year preceding the biggest enlargement of the EU) and 2012 (due to data completeness). Tax rates and the structure of tax revenues in the EU countries were compared and then the cluster analysis was applied to assess the similarity of tax revenues. The analysis suggests that the process of tax harmonization, which took place in the period considered, did not exert a significant impact on the similarity of the structure of tax revenues in the EU countries. The structure seems to be still determined by e.g. social, economic or historical factors, which influenced the tax systems creation in particular EU countries.
The paper proposes an assessment of citizenship rules in European Union countries. First, it designs an analytical framework in order to evaluate the rules of political membership from a liberal-democratic perspective. Second, it develops a systematic comparative study of the citizenship rules of the 27 member states of the EU. I argue that a liberal-democratic conception of membership requires certain degrees of inclusiveness as well as exclusiveness. Moreover, liberal-democratic membership can be compatible with both major ideological views on membership –ethno-cultural and civic-territorial. It is not the ethnic or civic ideological conception of the polity that renders the rules of membership illiberal, but their unjustified scope.
in: Wiadomości statystyczne / Glówny Urza̜d Statystyczny, Polskie Towarzystwo Statystyczne: czasopismo Głównego Urze̜du Statystycznego i Polskiego Towarzystwa Statystycznego, Volume 62, Issue 11, p. 17-28
he following research aims at comparing GDP seasonality and its components in the European Union countries. An attempt was made to determine the size of seasonal fluctuations, their share in short-term variability and the differences depending on the country and economic category. The analysis, based on the Eurostat data for the years 2002—2015, relies on a model of deterministic seasonality. The obtained results show large but varied seasonal fluctuations depending on the country and economic category. Gross fixed capital formation was subject to the largest seasonal fluctuations, whereas imports was exposed to the minor ones. A visible negative correlation between GDP seasonality and GDP per capita was found.
in: Wiadomości statystyczne / Glówny Urza̜d Statystyczny, Polskie Towarzystwo Statystyczne: czasopismo Głównego Urze̜du Statystycznego i Polskiego Towarzystwa Statystycznego, Volume 63, Issue 11, p. 21-40
The aim of the study is to verify the hypothesis of a tendency towards levelling of household income in the EU countries in the years 2007—2015. Convergence process of the level and the distribution of household disposable income was analysed. The basic source of information were Eurostat's data from EU-SILC database. The convergence analysis of income levels was carried out for the mean, median and first decile of annual equivalised household disposable incomes, weighted by country population. To examine their convergence, regression models used in economic convergence analyses were adapted and the concept of absolute ß convergence was used. In the study of income distributions convergence the income distribution in households by decile groups was used, and the degree of their discrepancy was assessed using the generalised form of the Jensen-Shannon divergence measure. The study was conducted for 27 EU countries, 15 of the old EU states and 12 new member states. On the basis of the obtained results, it was concluded that there was no convergence of the distributions of income by quantiles. However, the convergence of the considered characteristics of income distributions (mean, median, first decile) was observed.
This paper aims to examine the innovation performance of 28 European Union countries. Hypothesis of the paper states there is a significant difference of innovation performance between the old and the new EU members. Furthermore, the role of SMEs regarding innovation capacity may not be the same across EU. Using K-means clustering results indicated Germany, Ireland, France, Luxemburg and Austria as the most innovative countries and Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia as the least innovative countries. Czech Republic, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom and Spain were found to have a medium level of innovation performance. Furthermore, United Kingdom surpassed the average innovation level of the cluster for the small sized enterprises. Croatia was below the average level of the cluster regardless of the size of the enterprise. Romania was the outlier with the least innovation. In order to facilitate more innovation these findings may be valuable in creating more country specific recommendations for entrepreneurial policy.