Models of youth politics in the European Union countries ; Модели молодежной политики в странах Европейского Союза ; Моделі молодіжної політики в країнах Європейського Союзу (2014)
Repository: Scientific Periodicals of Ukraine (Ukrainian Research and Academic Network) / Наукова періодика України
The reality of recent decades proves that in a constantly changing world only those societies will enjoy political, economic and social benefits that were able to accumulate and make effective use of intellectual resources as well as innovation potential of the younger generation.Analysis of the available scientific material on the issue suggests that research of youth policy models and engagement of young people to participate in political processes in Ukraine and in the countries of the European Union is an important and multifaceted problem that attracts many foreign and local government officials as well as researchers.The documents of the United Nations play an important role in the proper functioning of youth organizations in the European Union. There the concept of international policy in the youth field is clearly demonstrated with the regular recurrent appearance of the analysis of state youth policy at the international and national levels.The key events that gave rise to the development of youth policy in the European Union began in 2001 when the European Commission adopted the White Paper «A new impetus for European Youth». In March 2005 European Pact was adopted. It addresses the concerns of young people and is part of the Lisbon strategy for growth and employment. The purpose of this document is to develop youth participation in education and training, social inclusion of young people in society. Later in 2007 in its Communication «Promoting full participation of young people in education, employment and society», the Commission focused on close communication in all areas in order to create conditions for the development of the youth sector. «Youth in Action» program is a well-known program adopted in 2006 for the period 2007-2013, the purpose of which is to promote active European cooperation in the field of youth policy and strengthen youth engagement.Currently, the EU ’s new strategy on the prospects of development of youth field for the period 2010-2018 «Strategy for Youth: Investing and Empowering» was adopted on November 27, 2009. It is based on the results of a constructive dialogue in which approximately 40,000 young people have participated. The Strategy identifies two main objectives of European cooperation in youth policy until 2018: a) create more equal opportunities for youth in education and employment and b) encourage active citizenship and social integration.Several models of youth policy can be singled out in the EU. They are based on certain criteria, such as: democracy, national cultural traditions and regulatory support, etc.– Universalistic model (Western Europe and Scandinavia) – is the most democratic model, which is characterized by parity level of state control of youth organizations, while providing them a wide discretion. This model emerged as a result of reorientation of youth policy in the last 10-15 years. It is still accompanied by events and activities of the youth movement. What is specific to this model is that there is no Ministry of Youth Affairs in the government.– Community model (UK) – characterized by minimal state intervention in the activities of youth organizations, based on old traditions. Only a small number of youth organizations take active part in the state building process, among them are sports, cultural and charitable organizations. Implementation of youth policy is delegated from the state to civil society.– Protectionist model (Central Europe) – the state is trying to control and set the priority objectives for youth organizations. In such states youth is a social group that needs protection, support and promotion. The main purpose of youth organizations is to lay the foundations of civil society.– Centralized model (the Mediterranean) – the involvement of the third sector and youth agencies of the local government is weak in this model, that is why youth policy is centralized, concentrated at the national level. As one can see the European experience has shown that governments are seeking their own approach to youth policy.In general, many countries have accumulated considerable experience connected with the formation and implementation of youth policy. According to how this policy is planned and implemented one can distinguish neo-conservative and social democratic model of youth policy. The essence of the first is that the government provides social assistance to those categories and groups of young people who desperately need it. The second model – the social democratic – is used in most European countries. Under this model the state takes responsibility for solving the most complicated youth problems. Both the neo-conservative and social democratic models successfully solve youth problems as is proved by the situation in developed countries.So, one can say that the models of youth policy in the European Union countries are based on their experience of developing and realizing youth policy. As for Ukraine, a relatively young state, it should be noted that the models of state youth policy are still in the initial stages of development. However, the analysis and research of positive examples of youth policy successful implementation by the EU countries will enable Ukraine to develop its own model of youth policies that will certainly help to prevent strategic mistakes that can negatively affect the development of society. ; Статья посвящена исследованию моделей молодежной политики в странах Европейского Союза, становлению эффективных отношений между государством и молодежью, освещается вопрос привлечения молодого поколения к участию в политических процессах в странах Европейского Союза. ; Статтю присвячено дослідженню моделей молодіжної політики в країнах Європейського Союзу, становленню ефективних відносин між державою та молоддю, висвітлюється питання залучення молодого покоління до участі в політичних процесах у країнах Європейського Союзу.