series of decisions will be taken in the second half of 2009 about the architecture and staffing of the structures of the European Union’s Development Cooperation. This Background Note, which provides the context to these decisions and explores possible options, has been prepared as part of the European Development Cooperation Support Programme (EDCSP). The programme is an ODI initiative funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID), which aims to support the debate on European Union institutional and policy change. To do so, the programme is constructing an infrastructure of knowledge, contacts and information on EU development cooperation. Some of the key decisions on EU development cooperation, and some of the timings, will depend on if and when the Lisbon Treaty on the workings of the EU is ratified. The rejection of the Treaty in June 2008 by Irish voters has delayed final ratification. A second Irish referendum will take place on 2 October 2009. If the vote is in favour of Lisbon, then ratification will probably be completed in time for the Treaty to come into force on 1 January 2010. The key decisions, whether or not the Lisbon Treaty is ratified, are as follows:
The global arena for development cooperation is in a state of flux, as the conventional drivers of economic and social progress have seen rapid transformations in the last years. In the South, new powers have (re)emerged and now represent proper alternatives to conventional North-South cooperation as a range of middle-income countries (MIC) have witnessed swift growth. Remittances and private financial flows to developing countries have exploded, and aid today only constitutes a small brick in the large puzzle that is financial flows for development. Different forms of partnership and comprehensive agreements are slowly substituting traditional donor-beneficiary relationships to the point where aid may be left with a marginal role in stimulating development. The implications of these changes for EU development cooperation are immense as the recognized and employed instruments and modalities are challenged. The changing global environment necessarily requires it to rethink its approach to development cooperation and its relations with emerging actors. Still, Europe holds a comprehensive history and experience in several areas that may prove to be comparatively advantageous in development cooperation, and where potential may be unlocked.
Development cooperation is one of the traditional policy domains of the European Union (EU). Over the years it advanced from an instrument used in colonial times to one of modern partnership, although European self-interest remains a driving force. Jointly, the EU and its member states are the largest development donor in the world and also provide sizable market access and investment to developing countries. Their overall performance record has been assessed fairly positively by internal and external parties, although many possible improvements have been identified. The various enlargements of the EU traceably supported a widening of the geographic and substantive scope of EU development policies and practice. In addition, EU development cooperation was reinforced by the fact that it gradually received a firmer basis in the constituent EU treaties.The "European Consensus on Development" document, as revised in 2017, laid out the main direction of and emphases in EU development cooperation until the year 2030. The European Consensus prescribed a rights-based approach, and squarely placed the United Nations "Agenda 2030" and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) contained in it, as the main framework and objectives for EU development cooperation.A wide range of actors is involved in EU development cooperation, in part because this is an area of shared competence among the EU member states that pursue their own national policies as well as those specified by the EU. Thus, EU actors such as the European Commission, Council, and Parliament feature in this policy field along with EU member states and individual or collective developing country actors. The most prominent example of this is the African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) Group of States, which consists of 79 countries. Civil society organizations, including non-governmental development organizations, both from the North and the South, also seek to influence or otherwise engage with the policies and practices of EU development cooperation.While EU development cooperation is an established policy field, it is also still very much a work in progress, and major challenges lay ahead for action in the period up to 2030, the year in which the SDGs are to be realized. These major challenges include funding, strengthening the EU's political clout in the world by using development cooperation more strategically for forging and influencing global decision-making on relevant topics, renewing and innovating the relations between the EU and ACP countries, handling the consequences of Brexit, and improving on the delivery of EU development cooperation.
Bakalaura darba tēma ir Eiropas Savienības Attīstības Sadarbības Politika. Līgumā par Eiropas Savienību ir iekļauta atsevišķa nodaļa par attīstības sadarbības politiku, kur par tās pamatmērķi ir noteikts samazināt pasaulē nabadzību, koncentrējoties tieši uz pasaules nabadzīgākajām valstīm, kā arī panākt to, lai šīs valstis varētu pakāpeniski kļūt par pasaules ekonomikas līdzvērtīgiem spēlētājiem. Tas ir jādara saskaņā ar demokrātijas, likuma varas un cilvēktiesību ievērošanas principiem. Pētījuma mērķis ir aplūkot galvenos principus un elementus, uz kādiem tiek veidota ES attīstības sadarbības politika, kā arī izvērtēt to vai tie atbilst Līgumā par ES noteiktajiem pamatmērķiem. Tāpēc darba hipotēze ir: Eiropas Savienības attīstības sadarbības politikas realizēšanas principi neatbilst attīstības sadarbībā izvirzīto pamatmērķu sasniegšanai. Pētījuma beigās tiek secināts, ka ES attīstības sadarbības izvirzīto pamatmērķu sasniegšanu apgrūtina, gan nesaskaņota rīcība starp visām ES realizētajām politikām attīstības valstīs, gan dalībvalstu neviennozīmīgā attieksme pret attīstības sadarbības politikas nepieciešamību un efektivitāti. ; Issue of the research paper is Development Cooperation of European Union. In the Treaty of Maastricht on European Union it is stated that Community shall be complementary to the Member States policies in development area. Development cooperation shall foster campaign against poverty in the sense of sustainable economic and social development of the developing countries mostly in most disadvantaged countries with the meaning to integrate developing countries into world economy. It has to be done with contributing general objective of developing and consolidating democracy and the rule of law and respecting human rights and fundamental freedoms. Objective of the research is to find out the main principles of development cooperation within EU and to evaluate if they comply with those principles written in the Treaty. Hypothesis of the paper is that enforced principles of development cooperation within EU do not fulfil main objectives of development cooperation. In the conclusion several enforced actions that slow down or even do not let to realize main development cooperation objectives are identified.
in: International organization, Volume 11, Issue 1, p. 201-202
ISSN: 0020-8183 (print), 1531-5088 (electronic)
The European Payments Union (EPU) was prolonged for a seventh year from July 1, 1956, without any alterations in the rules under which it had operated since August 1, 1955. The sixth annual report of EPU retraced the economic and financial developments in member countries during the fiscal year 1955–1956. It pointed out that economic activity had continued to expand, but in many countries demand had showed signs of growing rather faster than output, so that some inflationary pressures were felt in the form of rising prices and wages and of some weakening of individual balances of payments. The strongest advances in industrial output had occurred in France, with increases in west Germany, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands being next in importance; there had been no growth in the United Kingdom. Most countries had witnessed a gradual exhaustion of spare productive capacity and very full employment, with man-power shortages in certain specific sectors. A significant development in most countries had been the increase in fixed capital formation. In France and the United Kingdom especially, one main reason for it had been the fact that full use of industrial capacity had already been approached and labor shortages were appearing. The rise in investment expenditure, in conjunction with a continued increase of consumer expenditure, particularly on durable goods, had added to inflationary pressures. In a number of countries wage demand had seemed in excess of the probable rise in productivity; and in several countries wage increases had been granted. Between the second quarter of 1955 and the second quarter of 1956, prices had risen in most countries by 4–6 percent, and by even more in Iceland and Turkey.