The work reconstructs the historical path of the educational formation in Brazil, highlighting its main moments. 1. Reform of the normal school of the State of São Paulo, in 1890, whose model irradiated to the whole country. 2. From the educational reforms in the Federal District, in 1932, and in the State of São Paulo, in 1933, the model of the Normal School is defined. Having been adopted by several Brazilian States, it is incorporated in the Organic Act of the Normal Education, issued in 1946. Still at that moment the model of the formation of the educators is defined, to be used in the secondary education upon the institution, in 1939, of the bachelor and degree courses, among which the one in Pedagogy. 3. Educational reform instituted in 1971, when the model of the normal school was abandoned, after the creation of the teaching qualification. Finally, in its conclusion, it address the 1996 reform, when we could have had a new decisive moment represented by the elevation of the formation of teachers of all levels and branches to the higher level. However, the ambiguity and the formal flaws of the new Law of the Guidelines and Bases of the National Education prevented that from happening. The elaboration of the work is based on primary sources – constituted by the characteristic legal documents of the moments indicated – and on secondary sources – represented by the academic works which have already been produced on the history of the educational formation in Brazil. ; O trabalho reconstrói a trajetória histórica da formação docente no Brasil, destacando seus principais momentos. Primeiro momento decisivo: reforma da escola normal do Estado de São Paulo, em 1890, cujo modelo se irradiou por todo o país. Segundo momento decisivo: a partir das reformas do ensino no Distrito Federal, iniciada em 1932 por Anísio Teixeira e no Estado de São Paulo, em 1933, por Fernando de Azevedo, define-se o modelo de Escola Normal que, adotado por vários Estados brasileiros, se incorporou na Lei Orgânica do Ensino Normal decretada em 1946. Ainda nesse momento define-se o modelo de formação de educadores para atuar no ensino secundário ao serem instituídos, em 1939, os cursos de bacharelado e licenciatura, entre eles, o de Pedagogia. Terceiro momento decisivo: reforma do ensino instituída em 1971, quando se deu a descaracterização do modelo de escola normal, ao ser criada a habilitação magistério. Finalmente, na conclusão, aborda-se a reforma de 1996 quando poderíamos ter um novo momento decisivo representado pela elevação da formação dos professores de todos os graus e ramos de ensino ao nível superior. No entanto, a ambigüidade e as falhas formais da nova Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional impediram que isso viesse a acontecer. A elaboração do trabalho se apóia em fontes primárias constituídas pelos documentos legais característicos dos momentos indicados e nas fontes secundárias representadas pelos trabalhos acadêmicos já produzidos sobre a história da formação docente no Brasil. Palavras-chave: História da Formação Docente no Brasil. História da Política Educacional no Brasil. História da Educação Brasileira.
Abstract: Corruption has been seen as one of the social problems confronting the developmental efforts of this nation. This is because money and other resources meant for development are often diverted to private pockets by privileged few individuals at the expense of the entire population. The acquisition of wealth due to selfish act and greed has characterized most societies in Nigeria and that has negated the social and economic efforts of many societies. In view of this therefore, the study x-rays the major types of corruption in Kogi State such as, political, bureaucratic, electoral, systematic, individual and godfatherism. The study also discusses the causes of corruption such as, poverty, unemployment, weak government, ostentatious living, nepotism and favourtism to mention but a few. The effects of corruption on good governance and national development such as, misallocation of talents, diversion of development resource, and low levels of economic growth were discussed. However, to do away with corruption and corrupt practices in the State and the country at large, recommendations and suggestion such as imbibing the spirit of transparency, integrity, and accountability in all the private and public transactions in the economy was advocated. Also, the need to involve good people in politics that can provide good leadership with vision and effort needed to exploit a nation’s competitive advantages and create the inclusive institutions that would enable growth; development and prosperity to emerge were proffered.
Like medicine, education is an art. That is why advances in research do not produce a science of education, in the positivist meaning of the term, but yield increasingly powerful scientific foundations for practice and decision making. In this perspective, it can be said thal from 1900 to 1980, educational research bas gathered a surprisingly large body of knowledge containing valuable observations and conclusions.
Education has been recognized as the cornerstone of economic and social development. Now it is even more important as technological change and new methods of production transform the world economy. Development will depend more and more on kno'aedge-intensive industries, agriculture, and services. The continuing economic crisis, however, is jeopardizing the ability of many countries to maintain even the present quality of their educational services. These countries are falling behind in providing the education and training needed by their youth to create and adapt available knowledge and technologies to the local environment. This report examines the relationship between education and economic development and evaluates various measures designed to improve the quality of education in developing countries. It draws on the successes and failures of past educational policies to recommend