Addresses seven statements on international courts, pointing to their ineffectiveness: (1) International courts do not lead to peace. (2) Contemporary courts are not really the legacy of Nuremburg. (3) War crimes tribunals and truth commissions do not always advance human rights. (4) Only sometimes do war crimes victims demand prosecution. (5) There is no proof that giving amnesty to war criminals encourages impunity. (6) Evidence is weak that war crimes prosecutions deter future abuses. (7) There is no need for the International Criminal Court.
One of the most noted developments in international law over the past twenty years is the proliferation of international courts and tribunals. They decide who has the right to exploit natural resources, define the scope of human rights, delimit international boundaries and determine when the use of force is prohibited. As the number and influence of international courts grow, so too do challenges to their legitimacy. This volume provides new interdisciplinary insights into international courts' legitimacy: what drives and undermines the legitimacy of these bodies? How do drivers change depending on the court concerned? What is the link between legitimacy, democracy, effectiveness and justice? Top international experts analyse legitimacy for specific international courts, as well as the links between legitimacy and cross-cutting themes. Failure to understand and respond to legitimacy concerns can endanger both the courts and the law they interpret and apply.
Introduction / Harlan Grant Cohen, Andreas Follesdal, Nienke Grossman, and Geir Ulfstein -- Solomonic judgments and the legitimacy of the International Court of Justice / Nienke Grossman -- The global-local dilemma and the ICC's legitimacy / Margaret de Guzman -- Justice as legitimacy in the European Court of Human Rights / Molly Land -- Legitimacy and jurisdictional overlap : the ICC and the Inter-American Court in Colombia / Alexandra Huneeus -- The legitimacy of the European Court of Justice : normative debates and empirical evidence / Mark Pollack -- The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea : seeking the legitimacy of state consent / Anastasia Telesetsky -- Who decides matters : the legitimacy capital of WTO adjudicators versus ICSID arbitrators / Joost Pauwelyn -- The legitimacy of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes / Andrea Bjorklund -- The human rights treaty bodies and legitimacy challenges / Geir Ulfstein -- Constitutionalization, not democratization : how to assess the legitimacy of international courts / Andreas Follesdal -- Democracy, justice and the legitimacy of international courts / Mortimer Sellers -- Stronger together? : legitimacy and effectiveness of international courts as mutually reinforcing or undermining notions / Yuval Shany
An innovative, interdisciplinary and far-reaching examination of the actual reality of international courts, International Court Authority challenges fundamental preconceptions about when, why, and how international courts become important and authoritative actors in national, regional, and international politics. A stellar group of scholars investigate the challenges that international courts face in transforming the formal legal authority conferred by states into an actual authority in fact that is respected by potential litigants, national actors, legal communities, and publics. Alter, Helfer, and Madsen provide a novel framework for conceptualizing international court authority that focuses on the reactions and practices of these key audiences. Eighteen scholars from the disciplines of law, political science and sociology apply this framework to study thirteen international courts operating in Africa, Latin America, and Europe, as well as on a global level. Together the contributors document and explore important and interesting variations in whether the audiences that interact with international courts around the world embrace or reject the rulings of these judicial institutions. Alter, Helfer, and Madsen's authority framework recognizes that international judges can and often do everything they 'should' do to ensure that their rulings possess the gravitas and stature that national courts enjoy. Yet even when imbued with these characteristics, the parties to the dispute, potential future litigants, and the broader set of actors that monitor and respond to the court's activities may fail to acknowledge the rulings as binding or take meaningful steps to modify their behaviour in response to them. For both specific judicial institutions, and more generally, the book documents and explains why most international courts possess de facto authority that is partial, variable, and highly dependent on a range of different audiences and contexts - and thus is highly fragile.
International courts and tribunals now operate globally and in several world regions, playing significant roles in international law and global governance. However, these courts vary significantly in terms of their practices, procedures, and the outcomes they produce. Why do some international courts perform better than others? Which factors affect the outcome of these courts and tribunals? The Performance of International Courts and Tribunals is an interdisciplinary study featuring approaches, methods and authorship from law and political science, which proposes the concept of performance to describe the processes and outcomes of international courts. It develops a framework for evaluating and explaining performance by offering a broad comparative analysis of international courts, covering several world regions and the areas of trade, investment, the environment, human rights and criminal law, and offers interdisciplinary accounts to explain how and why international court performance varies.