Šī bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt un salīdzināt divu ievērojamu vēlā antīkā laikmeta bīskapu - Milānas Ambrozija un Jāņa Hrizostoma sociālās un politiskās idejas. Caur salīdzinājumu tiks dots padziļināts ieskats kristīgajā sociālajā un politiskajā domā laikā, kad antīkā politiskā doma lēnām transformējās kristīgajā un veidojās sabiedrības modelis un idejas, kas bija pamatā vēlākajai viduslaiku sabiedrībai un politiskajai domai. Darbā, ņemot vērā vēsturisko kontekstu, tiek salīdzinātas abu bīskapu darbos atrodamās vispārējās politiskās idejas par valsts nepieciešamību un izcelsmi, kā arī uzskati par sociālo problemātiku un Baznīcas – valsts attiecībām. Rezultātā tiek pārbaudīts, vai pieņēmums, ka jau šo bīskapu laikā bija vērojamas atšķirības Rietumu un Austrumu kristīgās baznīcas pārstāvju politiskajā domā, ir patiess. ; The main aim of the bachelor's paper is to explore and compare the social and political ideas of two remarkable bishops of late antiquity - Ambrose of Milan and John Chrysostom. Through a comparison, an advanced insight is given into Christian social and political thought of the time, when the antique political thought was slowly transformed into Christian one, which developed a new model of society, as well as ideas that served as a basis for the society and thought of the Middle Ages. Considering the historical context, the paper compares general political ideas about the necessity and origin of the State, found in both bishops' works, as well as their opinions on social problematics, and Church - State relationships. As a result it is being verified if it is correct to assume that it is possible to see the differences in the political thought of Western and Eastern Christian Church representatives already in the age of these bishops.
The New Testament period -- Injustice or God's will? : early Christian explanations of poverty / Steven J. Friesen -- "Be not one who stretches out hands to receive but shuts them when it comes to giving :" envisioning Christian charity when both donors and recipients are poor / Denise Kimber Buell -- James 2:2/7 in early Christian thought / George K. Hasselhoff -- Wealth, poverty, and the value of the person : some notes on the hymn of the pearl and its early Christian context / Edward Moore -- Egypt in late antiquity -- Widening the eye of the needle : wealth and poverty in the works of Clement of Alexandria / Annewies van den Hoek -- Care for the poor, fear of poverty, and love of money : Evagrius Ponticus on the monk's economic vulnerability / David Brakke -- Wine for widows : papyrological evidence for Christian charity in late antiquity Egypt / Adam Serfass -- Rich and poor in sophronius of Jerusalem's miracles of Saints Cyrus and John / Susan R. Holman -- John Chrysostom, the Cappadocians, and friends -- This sweetest passage : Matthew 25:31/46 and assistance to the poor in the homilies of John Chrysostom / Rudolf Brendle -- Poverty and generosity toward the poor in the time of John Chrysostom / Wendy Mayer -- Poverty and wealth as theater : John Chrysostom's homilies on Lazarus and the rich man / Francine Cardman -- Wealthy and impoverished widows in the writings of St. John Chrysostom / Efthalia Makris Walsh -- The hellenic background and nature of patristic philanthropy in the early Byzantine era / Demetrios J. Constantelos -- Wealth, trade, and profit in early Byzantium -- Gilding the lily : a patristic defense of liturgical splendor / A. Edward siecienski -- Wealth, stewardship, and charitable "blessings" in early Byzantine monasticism / Daniel Caner -- Trade, profit, and salvation in the late patristic and the Byzantine period / Angeliki E. Laiou -- Patristic studies for today -- St. Basil's philanthropic program and modern microlending -- Strategies for economic self-actualization / Timothy Patitsas -- The use of patristic socioethical texts in Catholic social thought / Brian Matz
Flight during times of persecution has a long and fraught history in early Christianity. In the third century, bishops who fled were cowards or, worse yet, heretics. On the face of it, it meant denial of Christ and thus betrayal of the faith and its community. But, by the fourth century, the terms of persecution changed as Christianity became the favored cult of the Roman Empire. Prominent Christians who fled and hence survived became founders and influencers of Christianity over time. Bishops in Flight examines the various ways these episcopal leaders both appealed to and altered the discourse of Christian flight to defend their status as purveyors of Christian truth even when their exiles appeared to condemn them. It illuminates how profoundly Christian authors deployed theological discourse and the rhetoric of heresy to respond to the phenomenal political instability of the fourth and fifth centuries.
Modern media bombard us on a near daily basis with stories and images of sacred and highly symbolical spaces that have been violently desecrated. These are usually accompanied by pleas for help directed at fellow believers around the world or at policy makers at home and abroad. Inevitably, modern audiences have become all too familiar with these stories and the standard repertoire of prejudice, inter-communal strife, and physical horrors they contain. Closer scrutiny of such narratives and images in Late Antiquity reveals that, regardless of whether these were fashioned by orthodox or heterodox Christian communities, such stories tend to exhibit very similar characteristics and employ some of the very same rhetorical strategies to frame the ways in which they convey their sense of victimhood to the outside world. There are nuances and differences, of course, but what emerges overall is a common idiom that readily cuts across Christianity’s religious boundaries, and similar ways in which victimhood and outrage at the violent desecration of symbolic space and imagery is expressed, or, in fact, produced. In this thesis I want to uncover and explain the nature and dynamics of this remarkable phenomenon. As such, my thesis is centred on the hypothesis that this common desecration idiom has its roots in the first half of the fourth century C.E., that it specifically arose out of the new religious constellation characteristic for this period, and that the parameters that were set then and there help explain why the typical reporting on the desecration of Christian religious space assumes the standardized format it does throughout Late Antiquity. In practical terms, my thesis seeks to unravel these developments by studying and comparing the narratology and symbolism of a carefully selected set of late antique stories that describe the violent desecration and destruction of religious space