The aim of this paper is to call to attention a body of recent literature on the perimeter of political studies and, in turn, to subject it to scrutiny according to the accepted procedure of at least one branch of political studies. To this end, what is identified as the return of political religion theory is considered from the perspective of contemporary theories of ideology. As the idea of political religion has principally resurfaced in historiographical discourse the initial part of the paper takes the form of a discussion piece. There are at least four contexts in which this return is evident (within fascism studies; within arguments concerning the intellectual history of Nazism; on the margins of contemporary political theory; and in a sociological debate over the meaning of civil religion). For reasons of space only the first of these is set out here. In the main body of the essay three distinct approaches to political religion are separated and evaluated. Thereafter, the intention is to work through the recent literature in order to pare down what is credible in it to a specific claim about the structure of political ideologies as systems of meaning. The substantive core of the idea that is left is thus considered from the point of view of a theory of ideology.
Political ideologies play a less important role in the political belief systems of the general public than is commonly assumed. The concept of nationalism is reviewed & its saliency is tested. Two models of nationalism are compared. The ethnocentric model predicts that, within a nationalist group, the national in-group should be viewed more favorably than the out-groups, & that in-group & out-group evaluations should be negatively correlated. The historical model incorporates explicitly politicized group orientations. It assumes that group orientations are rationally linked, & allows the concept to be defined in terms of specific historical conditions. A study was conducted during July/Aug 1974, consisting of 221 personal interviews. The Ss were randomly chosen from the population of Calgary. The data give only weak support to the ethnocentric model of nationalism, & only for the apolitical group orientations in the sample. The politicized orientations were related in a manner suggesting the historical model. The existence of two conflicting ideological patterns in the political belief systems of the Ss contradicts the assumptions at the beginning of the study. 11 Tables, 3 Appendices. Modified HA.
"This fascinating new text dissects the major political ideologies of our age, uncovering the rich layers of both their historical roots and their contemporary expressions. Emphasizing the plurality of political thought, the author examines contrasting views of the state's role in key policy areas, from personal rights and freedoms to social justice and economic growth. Written for intermediate-level political science courses, Political Ideologies provides a concise overview of the political theories and theorists that have shaped the modern world." "Highlights" "'Central Beliefs' boxes list the key tenets of each ideology, giving students succinct points for comparison." "Focus on contemporary ideologies, including religious fundamentalism and environmentalism, helps students understand the state of global political theory today." "In-depth analysis of theoristsf︢rom John Locke, founder of classical liberalism, to environmentalist Arne Ns̄s and pacifist Ursula Franklini︢nspires students with stories of how individual thinkers have shaped global political thought." "Canadian examples, incorporated throughout the text, help students understand complex theories within a familiar context." "End-of-chapter evaluations of strengths and weaknesses encourage students to critically assess and challenge even the most well-established ideologies." "Extensive lists of recommended readings suggest reliable starting points for further research." "A comprehensive timelinep︢rinted on the inside front coverp︢rovides students with a quick reference to significant moments in the development of political thought."--BOOK JACKET
A l'aide d'un sondage effectué à Calgary, l'auteur étudie comment deux modèles de nationalisme permettent de décrire et d'expliquer les croyances politiques du grant public. Le premier modèle, fondé sur la notion d'ethnocentrisme, n'est que faiblement corroboré par les données et fait apparaître les importantes faiblesses de ce concept. Le second modèle, qui prend sa source dans l'interprétation historique du nationalisme, s'avère utile dans la description de diverses associations de sentiments politiques, parmi lesquelles deux sont examinées plus en profondeur, la première regroupant l'aliénation à l'égard de l'Ouest, l'antipathie vis-à-vis du Canada français et une certaine acceptation des activités américaines au Canada, et la seconde regroupant les sentiments inverses. Dans les deux cas, l'association semble trouver son attache idéologique dans le niveau d'éducation et de partisanerie politique.