Independent variables that facilitate the development of a professional self-concept among teaching assistants in graduate school are researched in a study involving 364 graduate teaching assistants at Florida State U, during the Spring 1969-70 academic year. Data were collected by means of a mailed questionnaire. The dependent variable is professional self-concept, with professional role-enactment, exposure to graduate school, perceived success, career expectations, autonomy & previous experience being the independent variables. 0-order relationships & J. Coleman's measure of effect parameters were used to measure the relationships. The findings were compared to those of previous research in the field of professional self-concept, & found to support conclusions there. Role-enactment explains the most variation, with exposure second. While autonomy does not have a strong independent effect on self-concept, its interaction with role-enactment, exposure, & perceived success suggest it to be a possible important positive or negative part of the professionalization process & worthy of consideration. The pros & cons of teaching assistantship in developing professional self-concept are discussed, & the implications of the study, since all independent variables have some impact in forming professional self-concept, are pointed out as important in achieving maximum development of a professional self-concept. 6 Tables. S. Coler.
Essential portions of a report prepared for UNESCO are presented. Reactions by social scientists to dilemmas related to the risks & benefits of research have resulted in 'the applied professional model' which consists of an explicit set of codes & penalties for noncompliance. A survey of over 300 national associations of anthropologists, economists, political scientists, psychiatrists, psychologists, & sociologists obtained from international associations was undertaken in 1973 & 1974. 24 responded with codes of ethics, & a composite code was developed by listing all unique statements relating to the conduct of research. The same was done for problems associated with the use of scientific findings, based on the 5 codes of the 24 which included such provisions. Both sets of principles are presented. Little attention was given to sanctions, which limits the use of the applied professional model as an appropriate control model. Some of the problems associated with the model stem from innate differences between applied professionals & scientific investigators. As an alternative, a research protocol-licensed investigator procedure is proposed, which concludes Part I of the report. Part II discusses 3 interrelated issues: (1) different ways in which mankind may not realize benefits from scientific knowledge or in some way be harmed by it, (2) the scientist's responsibility for benefits foregone or harm produced, & (3) the ability of scientists to apply control mechanisms to minimize benefits foregone or harm when scientific knowledge is applied to specific situations. Part III discusses the interrelationships between the scientific enterprise & societal decision-makers. Both structural relationships & values are included, with some emphasis on matters arising from incongruence between political values of scientific investigators & decision-makers. 1 Table, 1 Appendix. J. N. Mayer.
It is impossible to increase the ability of the police to reduce violent crime unless police-community relations are substantially improved in minority areas. These relationships have been getting increasingly worse because of the rising demands of minority groups, frequent physical & verbal abuse committed by police officers against citizens, & other police activity on the streets. Recent changes in police dept's to make them more professional have often further harmed police-minority relations, & the reforms being adopted in police dept's to improve these relationships have generally not been effective. Substantial improvement in police-minority relations requires that the police & public radically change their concept of what police work is about. Police officers must be seen as one of many diff groups in our society dealing with human problems & serving the public, such as teachers, gang workers, & correctional officers. Such a change will require that police personnel & policies be substantially changed. HA.
Discussions of popular culture commonly suggest that the imputed poor quality of such material is due to the application of mass production techniques to the creative process. However, while mass production technologies are widely employed in the reproduction & dissemination of artistic products, the actual act of creation may still be performed in traditional ways. DofL is widespread in popular culture agencies, but may not affect the creative process. Large, bur'tic org's do not necessarily stifle creativity, & are indeed characteristic of theatre, ballet & musical performance. Popular artists are not necessarily alienated from their work. They may internalize the norms of the producing agency, or be effectively insulated from other reference groups. Specialized marketing operations allow scope for the development of specialized & quasi- professional skills. Alienation may be a graver problem for the more `serious' creative or performing artist, since direct contact with the audience is being rendered progressively harder by the rise of middlemen. Greater attention needs to be paid to the relationships between product quality, org of production, creative activity & the artist's att's. AA.
In influencing the content & operation of public policy at the over-all conceptual level, econ's has emerged as a super-discipline among the soc sci's. This influence is reflected in the Amer Presidency by the work of the Council of Econ Advisers, which, over the past 25 yrs, has proved to be the gov's econ ideologist. The functioning of econ advice has been determined by the President's elastic demand for econ advice, the range of issues involving presidential leadership resources, the Council's participation in decision-making processes, & the instit'al relationships maintained by the Council. Experience has shown that: (1) the application of econ expertise is shaped largely by pol'al & bur'tic factors & hence part of, rather than apart from, the pol'al process; (2) consensus regarding basic econ theory is balanced by disagreement among econ'ts regarding values & convictions; (3) econ'ts work from common income, employment, & production data but diff program data; & (4) the constraints of limited resources keep the Council functioning at the conceptual rather than the operating level. Application of professional macro-econ analysis to macro-policy yields a knowledge/power relationship that strengthens both presidential leadership & democratic gov. HA.
This study explores the merits of using career oriented programs to enable minority group students to enter economic mainstream as professionals in greater numbers. The core of this study is the Career Opportunities for Youth Programme (C.O.Y.) which accepts participants from San Fernando, Verdugo, Sylmar and Kennedy High Schools which are located in California, and exposes them to various careers offered by Hughes Aircraft, IBM, KNBC, and in police science training. The students receive two and a half units of academic credit for their participation in the program and on-the-job training for possible future careers. As new students enter the C.O.Y. program each semester, new treatment and control groups are added to the study to further validate and expand the baseline of this panel research project. The treatment group is made up of minority students from San Fernando High school by and large who are participants in the C. 0. Y. Program. The subjects in the control group are selected at random from San Fernando High School and are representative of the high minority student population at the school. All of the subjects in control group number one (01) are tested for homogeneity with respect to certain socio-economic characteristics as compared to subjects from the treatment group. A group of upwardly mobile, high achieving students from a sociology class at Chatsworth High School were selected as subjects for control group number two (02). The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactional relationships encountered by exposing minority subjects to the treatment conditions in the Career Opportunities for Youth Program (C.O.Y.). The results obtained by varying the treatment conditions of the minority high school students in the experimental group was contrasted with students from the same school who were not aware that they were participating in the experimental design. Further analysis will be undertaken to determine if the treatment conditions as experienced by the subjects in the experimental group have any effect that would tend to raise their level of competence and motivation to a position where they can successfully complete high school, compete in college and obtain professional status commensurate with upwardly mobile Anglo students (control group two). I hypothesize that my research will demonstrate that the participants in the Career Opportunities for Youth Program (treatment group) will enter the economic mainstream with higher status jobs (professional) than will other minority children (control group 1) and will display greater economic and social mobility patterns which enable them to achieve high status positions in the community comparable to typically upward mobile Anglos (control group II). I further hypothesize that education can become the great social equalizer if educational institutions implement career programs of high quality such as the Career Opportunities for Youth Program. ; by Alexander Joel Blankfield ; Includes bibliographical references (pages 134-135)
Since the fundamental nature of reality is independent of time & place, & there is an inevitable order in the progressive discovery of natural laws, the community of basic sci'ts must be viewed as an internat'l enterprise. The central dynamics of this community are based on the 'energy' provided by the quest for 'professional recognition' or for competent response to creative achievement, & on 4 norms that govern sci'ts' relationships -universalism, communality, org'ed skepticism, & disinterestedness-so that this energy is channeled in ways that make sci a self-sustaining internat'l soc system. The nat'lity of sci'ts-their locations in time & space & their diff cultural backgrounds-is an intrinsic aspect of this community; internat'lity is an attribute of its goals rather than its origins. Since WWII, the practical value of sci has made it a valuable nat'l resource; the development of an adequate nat'l scific community has become a worldwide focus of nat'l policy. The importance of applied res to nat'l interests is set against the centrality of basic res in the internat'l sci'fic community, & it is proposed that undue emphasis upon the former will undermine the latter & thus weaken the necessary foundation of any nat'l sci'fic community. 3 prerequisites for the development of self-sustaining nat'l sci'fic groups are identified. Cultural factors must legitimate the systematic study of nature & tolerate, if not honor, careers in sci'fic res. Support is essential to training & res, including travel abroad for advanced training, if a 'critical mass' of local sci'ts is eventually to develop. Manag, both private & public, must understand the fundamental nature of sci & ensure adequate support of basic res as prerequisite to the growth of applied sci. AA.
Considering the System theory the author conceives the Yugoslav enterprise to be an open system. Moreover critically taking into consideration all the various definitions for the purpose of operationalization he defines the environment as a communicative influential domain, integrating in this way the theory of the environment and of the organization. Accepting the phenomenological hypothesis and considering the actual influence as equaling the perceptional one — the influence has been investigated, with a help of some innovations, by means of the graph of control on the top management in 55 industrial organizations. The difference between the external and internal, passive and active influences has been distinguished. Internal influence is the one within and the external is the one outside the relevant enterprise; passive is the one to which the respondent is subjected by other members of the organization and active is the one which is exercised by the respondent on other members of the organization. According to the indexes got in this way the enterprises seem to be influenced by the examined factors of the environment to a larger extant than vice versa. The grouping of the bodies of the environment has shown the dominant status of the bank and the trade organizations in their relation to the industrial enterprises. Still that environment is not very much like the system that was typical of eighteenth century liberal capitalism although it might appear so. Considering the system of the country itself we seem to be speaking of the seemingly liberal environment with the state itself appearing indirectly through the banks. The results seem to be confirmed and even more differentiated by the factor analysis. Regarding the internal influence it should be pointed out that the influence of the top management on the organizational groups in the enterprises is almost equal to the amount of the influence exercised on the top management by the organizational groups. Generally, the internal organizational relationships of influence are more intensive and more balanced. We can assume that the social relations between the organizational groups within the enterprises are more socialized and more integrated than the relations between the enterprises and their environment. Top management in an enterprise has a marginal relation towards the political representatives, a central relation towards the professionals and self-managing bodies and a firm-hierarchical-superordination-and-superordination-relation towards managerial groups. The analysis of the correlations has shown that the active and passive external influences make up a united system of power — if viewed from the standpoint of the top management. That does not mean that the top management are exposed to the system of total control because there is also a united system of influence, which is exercised by the top management on the bodies outside the enterprise. In the same way the uncontrolled power does not appear either in the influence of the top management on the organizational groups within the enterprise. So we claim the existence of only two integrated subsystems of the active and passive influences. The increasing influence of the top management on the environment and the organizational groups leads to the reverse influence, that is, the increasing influence of the environment and organizational groups on the top management, exhibiting thus clearly the logic of the reciprocal influence. The author has found out a considerably different influence of the environment within the work organizations than he expected. He expected the influence of the administrative-political environment to lessen the internal active influence of the top management, and the influence of the business professional environment to increase the internal active and passive influences of the top management, and the influence of the trade organizations to increase the active internal influence of the top management. He has found out that the redistribution of power within the work organizations is not influenced by the administrative political environment, and that the influence of the top management within the enterprise is even diminished by the trade-organizations. Moreover, though in a system of external- -internal power-relations the self-managerial bodies and political organizations are not reduced to being merely marginal factors, the backbone of the whole system of the external-internal power-relations still makes the influence of the top management on the leading organizational groups and the influence of the business organizations on the enterprises. That means that the business circle from other enterprises exercises a considerable influence on the internal status of the top management within individual enterprises, and thus on the interactions between the other managerial groups as well. This circulus vitiosus of power is uncontrolled and spontaneous product of the division of labor at the macro-level of the whole society and also at the micro-level of the work-organizations because it makes possible an intensive reciprocal influence between the external and internal managerial groups. This proves the functional autonomization of the management which will be sustained spontaneously up the time when a functionally adequate, and not only politically adequate redistribution of managerial function will be varied out.