State legislators' relationships with administrators have received scant attention in the literature despite the importance of these relationships for delivery of public services. We explored whether or not the legislator-administrator relationship in one professional state legislature resembles Congress's oversight of federal agencies. We also assessed whether or not term limits changed this relationship. Our findings indicate that monitoring state agencies was a low priority for this legislature, and it dropped even lower after term limits were implemented. More specifically, we found some institutional roles to be associated with legislators placing a higher priority on monitoring, especially before term limits, whereas some individual motives were associated with a lower priority, especially after term limits. Legislators exhibited more confusion about the process of monitoring after term limits. Adapted from the source document.
Independent variables that facilitate the development of a professional self-concept among teaching assistants in graduate school are researched in a study involving 364 graduate teaching assistants at Florida State U, during the Spring 1969-70 academic year. Data were collected by means of a mailed questionnaire. The dependent variable is professional self-concept, with professional role-enactment, exposure to graduate school, perceived success, career expectations, autonomy & previous experience being the independent variables. 0-order relationships & J. Coleman's measure of effect parameters were used to measure the relationships. The findings were compared to those of previous research in the field of professional self-concept, & found to support conclusions there. Role-enactment explains the most variation, with exposure second. While autonomy does not have a strong independent effect on self-concept, its interaction with role-enactment, exposure, & perceived success suggest it to be a possible important positive or negative part of the professionalization process & worthy of consideration. The pros & cons of teaching assistantship in developing professional self-concept are discussed, & the implications of the study, since all independent variables have some impact in forming professional self-concept, are pointed out as important in achieving maximum development of a professional self-concept. 6 Tables. S. Coler.
Despite the benefits produced by traditional mentoring programs for political scientists at all career levels, it is stated that graduate students & junior faculty would receive additional advantages by establishing peer mentor relationships. Several shortcomings of traditional mentor programs constructed upon existing academic hierarchies are identified, eg, some graduate students & junior faculty encounter problems in accessing their mentors. Multiple reasons for encouraging graduate students & junior faculty to pursue peer mentoring relationships are provided, eg, students & junior faculty can share personal & academic difficulties with each other in an egalitarian context. Gail M. McGuire & Jo Reger's (2003) model for co-mentoring based on feminist principles is discussed to further illustrate the advantages of peer mentoring paradigms. It is also stated that peer mentoring is particularly helpful for racial minority & female graduate students & junior faculty. 18 References. J. W. Parker
This article is based on a study of migrant professionals from Macedonia who are now in Germany. It aims to assess how migrants who practise professions relate to their identities as experts who can sustain (or at least have the opportunity to sustain) relationships linking their places and societies of origin and the places where they have settled, and who can use these links to assist their careers. The results show a particular pattern: simultaneously, these migrant professionals promote their expertise as 'transnational', but aim to have careers that are rooted in one place.
Six status concordance measures (discipline prestige, academic rank, age, sex, highest degree, & discipline influence) were examined separately over time in an examination of two competing views of the relationships between leader status characteristics & performance in small professional organizations. Findings indicate that higher status older professionals with higher academic degrees are best used as leaders in early stages of organizational development. In older organizations, however, lower status individuals are more closely associated with success. Status characteristics were not found to be interchangeable & were not found to relate in the same way to other variables over time. 1 Table. AA.
Essential portions of a report prepared for UNESCO are presented. Reactions by social scientists to dilemmas related to the risks & benefits of research have resulted in 'the applied professional model' which consists of an explicit set of codes & penalties for noncompliance. A survey of over 300 national associations of anthropologists, economists, political scientists, psychiatrists, psychologists, & sociologists obtained from international associations was undertaken in 1973 & 1974. 24 responded with codes of ethics, & a composite code was developed by listing all unique statements relating to the conduct of research. The same was done for problems associated with the use of scientific findings, based on the 5 codes of the 24 which included such provisions. Both sets of principles are presented. Little attention was given to sanctions, which limits the use of the applied professional model as an appropriate control model. Some of the problems associated with the model stem from innate differences between applied professionals & scientific investigators. As an alternative, a research protocol-licensed investigator procedure is proposed, which concludes Part I of the report. Part II discusses 3 interrelated issues: (1) different ways in which mankind may not realize benefits from scientific knowledge or in some way be harmed by it, (2) the scientist's responsibility for benefits foregone or harm produced, & (3) the ability of scientists to apply control mechanisms to minimize benefits foregone or harm when scientific knowledge is applied to specific situations. Part III discusses the interrelationships between the scientific enterprise & societal decision-makers. Both structural relationships & values are included, with some emphasis on matters arising from incongruence between political values of scientific investigators & decision-makers. 1 Table, 1 Appendix. J. N. Mayer.
PROFESSION AND POLICY ARE TERMS THAT HAVE ACQUIRED DISTINCT, ALBEIT POORLY BOUNDED, MEANINGS IN ENGLISH BUT LACK EQUIVALENTS IN OTHER LANGUAGES. PARTICULAR PROFESSIONS LIKE THOSE OF LAW AND MEDICINE, ON THE OTHER HAND, HAVE MAINTAINED RATHER SIMILAR MEANINGS AND IDENTITIES IN VARIOUS WESTERN NATIONAL SETTINGS. BUT WITHIN THESE NATIONAL SETTINGS SUBCOMPONENTS OF THE LEGAL AND MEDICAL PROFESSIONS HAVE, OVERTIME, CHANGED THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO EACH OTHER, AS WELL AS TO THE STATE AND TO THEIR CLIENTS. HENCE A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS MAY FOCUS ON HOW, THROUGH THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH STATE STRUCTURES, PROFESSIONS HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO SHAPING DIFFERENCES IN NATIONAL POLICY PROFILES.
Argues that the institution of friendship deserves the same legal protection & recognition as families, households, & professional relationships. A definition of a friend is provided, delineating several core characteristics of friendship. It is contended that the centrality of friendship to people's lives requires that law take notice. Further, laws, legal institutions, & public policy agendas should be oriented toward promoting & facilitating friendship. D. Edelman
Argues that professional labor has benefited from its close integration into corporate and other hierarchies. Using historical case studies from law, engineering, and accounting, shows how this relationship developed over time and how actors used it to build their professions. In forging close ties to large-scale organizations, professionals were largely successful in avoiding proletarianization of their work and also in maintaining a necessary degree of autonomy from corporate control. (Original abstract)
ONE GOAL OF THE LONGMAN MONOGRAPH SERIES IS TO EXAMINE THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POLITICAL COMMUNICATION AS A SOCIAL PROCESS AND COMMUNICATION POLICY. BRIAN WEINSTEIN, A POLITICAL SCIENTIST AT HOWARD UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C., ACHIEVE THIS GOAL BY ILLUSTRATING THE FACT THAT THE VERY OPERATION OF A POLITICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM IS ITSELF A POLITICAL OUTCOME. WEINSTEIN HAS STUDIED THE POLITICS OF LANGUAGE IN NUMEROUS SOCIETIES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD, AND HAD DIRECT PERSONAL EXPERIENCE IN FRANCOPHONE AFRICA, INDIA, AND THE UNITED STATES. HE IS NEITHER A MARXIST NOR A REPRESENTATIVE OF ANY OTHER IDENTIFIABLE SCHOOL OF THOUGHT. HIS APPROACH IS BROADLY LIBERAL, AND IN IDENTIFYING LANGUAGE POLICY OPTIONS WHERE AMERICAN TRADITION HAS FAILED TO IDENTIFY THEM, OR HAS SILENTLY INSISTED UPON LINGUISTIC CONFORMITY, HE VENTURES VIEWPOINTS THAT OTHER AMERICAN SCHOLARS HAVE FAILED TO EXPRESS.
This qualitative study of disputing at the World Trade Organization (WTO) examines how expertise is acquired and maintained over time and how it influences perceptions of legitimacy held by WTO practitioners. The research demonstrates that expertise is derived from individuals' direct experience with disputing. Trade delegations employ or acquire expertise through the development of in-house experts, contracting private legal representation and seeking legal assistance. Institutionalizing expertise acquired by individuals is a primary challenge for building legal capacity and is linked to serial participation, building informal professional relationships and creating economies of scale in expert practitioners. Nonetheless, challenges remain, particularly related to the cost and difficulty of maintaining expertise over time and the role of market power in retaliation. How countries are able to gain expertise underwrites the legitimacy perceptions of practitioners, which emphasizes opportunities to acquire expertise over the persistence of inequalities in legal capacity. Adapted from the source document.
"This article is based on a study of migrant professionals from Macedonia who are now in Germany. It aims to assess how migrants who practise professions relate to their identities as experts who can sustain (or at least have the opportunity to sustain) relationships linking their places and societies of origin and the places where they have settled, and who can use these links to assist their careers. The results Show a particular pattern: simultaneously, these migrant professionals promote their expertise as 'transnational', but aim to have careers that are rooted in one place." (author's abstract)