in: Cerami, Alfio (2015) 'Social Aspects of Transformation' in Wolchik, S. L. and Curry, J. L., eds., Central and East European Politics From Communism to Democracy – Third Edition, Washington DC: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 99-120.
in: International social science journal: ISSJ, Volume 11, Issue 1, p. 7-71
Partial contents: Effects of urbanization on mental health, by Tsung-yi Lin: Human relations in industry, by R. F. Tredgold; Mental health in college and university in the United States of America, by Dana L. Farnsworth and Henry K. Oliver.
3 major spheres in which aggression develops are discerned: individual; within the context of a nat'l or state community; & as an instrument of foreign policy. This classification is based on quantitative factors-the scale of the aggression & the number of individuals involved in it. Modern theories on the origin of armed aggression as an instrument of foreign policy are summarized. The following Sch's of thought are noted: those ascribing internat'l aggression to biological factors (this is seen as a highly dangerous approach); those situated on the boundary between biology & geopol (theories referring to the impact of the pop explosion; these are considered inaccurate); those theories which hold diff levels of ED responsible for aggression; & a number of geopol'al theories as well as sociol'al theories. All these main groups seem to suffer from a one-sided approach to the problem, giving prominence to one or the other particular factor & Ignoring or underestimating the complex soc, econ, & pol'al factors in their interrelationship with each other. Analysis of the evidence shows that org'ed aggression as an instrument of foreign policy occurs at a specific stage in the evolution of mankind, with the rise of private ownership of production & the existence of mutually antagonistic classes & states. The term 'aggression' cannot properly be used in the case of primitive communities, where conflicts between individuals, clans, tribes or groups of tribes did not necessarily stem from the existing soc order & production system. A review of history shows that aggression has differed in character at diff stages of cultural development. Aggression can only be fully eradicated from human experience if its cause, societies with antagonistic classes, becomes a thing of the past. But it can be averted even in circumstances where states with diff soc systems coexist, if equality of rights, mutual understanding & trust between the states, & non-interference in domestic affairs are accepted. M. Maxfield.
Analyzed are the social & historical causes of the Eritrean revolution, with focus on the repressive policies of Italian, British, & most recently, Ethiopian occupiers. The social & revolutionary accomplishments of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) in the areas of land reform, liberation of towns, & politicalization of workers & peasants are described. Also assessed is the impact of the EPLF on education, health, & the liberation of women. The deterrent effect of entrenched feudal interests & of early mistakes on revolutionary progress is hypothesized. D. Dunseath.
We are witnessing today in both Europe and America the breakdown of what may be called the nineteenth-century equilibrium, and at the same time the effort to work out a new equilibrium as a basis of life for the twentieth century. The New Deal is the American phase of this movement. We can understand it better if we view it with the search-light of the movements in other countries, and if we make clear to ourselves what is driving them, how they are being driven, and what problems are in their path.The key to recent social developments seems to me to lie in the resurgence of the middle classes. This is a development of the last decade or so, and is largely the result of the failure of the two other major social groups—the capitalists and the workers—to give Western society, especially Western European society, leadership and direction. On the one hand, the capitalistic groups, while concentrating industrial and financial resources, showed a sad incapacity to establish a leadership based on social needs and moral values.