TO STUDY VIOLENCE WITHIN RELIGION IS TO CONFRONT A PARADOX. THIS ARTICLE EXPLORES THE NATURE AND IMPLICATIONS OF THIS PARADOX, FOCUSING FOR THE MOST PART, ON THE PLACE OF VIOLENCE IN THE RELIGION OF PRIMITIVE OR PRE-STATE SOCIETIES. IT ADDRESSES THE QUESTION OF VIOLENCE IN A NON-WESTERN WORLD RELGION, ISLAM, WITHIN THE COMPARATIVE CONTEXT ESTABLISHED EARLY IN THE ARTICLE AND CONCLUDES THE THE SACRIFICIAL CHANNELING OF VIOLENCE AGAINST VIOLENCE IS ALWAYS IN DANGER OF SPILLING OVER INTO RENEWED REVENGE CYCLES OF VIOLENCE AGAINST VIOLENCE, ULTIMATELY RESULTING IN THE CONFUSION OF RITUAL AND HISTORY.
Focus Section: Violence and Violence Research in the Global South. - Guest Editorial: The Nexus of Violence, Violence Research, and Development. Introduction to the Focus Section / Peter Imbusch, Alex Veit, 4-12. - Violence and Violence Research in Africa South of the Sahara / Alex Veit, Vanessa Barolsky, Suren Pillay, 13-31. - Violence Research from North Africa to South Asia: A Historical and Structural Overview / Boris Wilke, Jochen Hippler, Muhammad Zakria Zakar, 32-54. - Violence Research in Northeast and Southeast Asia: Main Themes and Directions / Oliver Hensengerth, 55-86. - Violence Research in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Literature Review / Peter Imbusch, Michel Misse, Fernando Carrión, 87-154. - Scarcity and Abundance Revisited: A Literature Review on Natural Resources and Conflict / Stormy-Annika Mildner, Gitta Lauster, Wiebke Wodni, 155-172. - How Does Militant Violence Diffuse in Regions? Regional Conflict Systems in International Relations and Peace and Conflict Studies / Nadine Ansorg, 173-187
In recent years, urban violence has worsened the living conditions of people in El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala. Very often, men, women and children leave not in search of a better life but simply in order to survive. Territorial conflict between the gangs is continual. The violence, fear and mistrust sown by the gangs eventually erode the social fabric and the little commercial initiative that remains in these places. For many, migration is the only option. In some regions of these countries, gang rule is absolute and young people are extremely vulnerable to forced recruitment into the gangs. Adolescents are continually intimidated and subjected to violence, pressurised into joining the gangs or working for them as drug pushers or in other roles. A recurrent theme in out-migration is the large number of children forced to leave their countries, exposing them to the dangerous conditions of the journey. Some families prefer to see their sons and daughters exiled rather than risk them being killed or forced into a life of crime. But the violence continues along the migration route. This violence is little different from the violence they face in their own countries. Adapted from the source document.
This review presents the major lines of investigation regarding violence in Africa since the Cold War. After a historical introduction to the development of violent phenomena and their political contexts, diverse issues such as civil war, democratization, vigilantism, and the role of youth are assessed. It is argued that recent research has produced important insights by re-focusing on violent phenomena beyond the state. Yet despite the increasing number of non-state violent actors active on the African continent, to speak of a "privatization" of violence may be premature. Adapted from the source document.