The national treatment obligation prohibits discrimination between foreign goods, services and service suppliers and domestic goods, services and service suppliers. Under the national treatment obligation, WTO Member Agricola may not treat chocolate from Industria less favourably than it treats its domestic chocolate, once the chocolate from Industria has entered the Agricolan market. Neither may Agricola treat Industrian coffeehouses established in Agricola less favourably than Agricolan coffeehouses.
• The regulation of energy in international law is highly fragmented and largely incoherent. We submit that pertinent issues should be addressed by a future Framework Agreement on Energy within WTO law. • Successful regulation of energy requires a coherent combination of rules both on goods and services. Energy services require new classifications suitable to deal coherently with energy as an integrated sector. • Rules on subsidies relating to energy call for new approaches within the Framework Agreement on Energy. A distinction should be made between renewable and non-renewable energy. Moreover, disciplines need to be developed in the context of emission trading. • The Framework Agreement should address the problem of restricting energy production and export restrictions. • Disciplines on government procurement are able to take into account policies on green procurement, but a number of changes to the GPA Agreement will be required to make green procurement more effective and attractive. • In view of the close interactions between the energy sector and climate change, formulating effective rules to address energy under the WTO system will catalyse coherence and complementarity between the climate and trade regimes A.