Activism is defined in this paper as involving local instigations of new series of elements intersecting the actual, generating new collective enunciations, experimentations and investigations, which erode good and common sense and cause structures to swing away from their sedimented identities. By appealing to Spinozism, the paper describes the microphysics of the activist encounter with stable structures and the ways in which activism imposes new regimes of succession of ideas and affective variations in the power of action. Rather than understanding activism as supporting or leading social struggles, the definition of activism pursued here conceives it as an open-ended process and stresses the role of investigation in relation to practices within the social situations to which activism addresses itself.
Publisher description: Beginning with an overview of activism in the past century from 1900 to 2001, Environmental activism: a reference handbook puts organizations and their activities into historical context. This volume offers both an American perspective and a global perspective. It chronicles the major events that sparked environmental actions; aligns individuals with organizations, such as John Muir and the Sierra Club; and presents a balanced treatment of activities in both conservative and liberal political spheres. Separate chapters identify six eras of activism from 1900 to 2001 and include their characteristics, issues, strategies, and advocates. This is followed by summaries of the various types of organizations and their strategies, including direct action (ecoterrorism, monkey wrenching) as well as mainstream activity (lobbying, letter writing).
Social science research on environment and activism with a cross- or transnational scope (REACTS) is described as a consolidated but confused, stagnant field of scholarship, one which has yet to surpass the comparable state of international studies at large. Previous reviews of the literature in this growing and interdisciplinary research domain have gone so far as so divide it into either its cross-national or its transnational branch, respectively associated with cross-national and environmental social science (CESS), or transnational and environmental social science (TESS). As evidence of stagnancy, once the CESS and TESS branches of REACTS are combined, changes in the cross-national research agenda have been merely the reverse of the transnational one. From 1969–75, REACTS literature covered the themes of population, catastrophic limits to growth, interstate conferences and organizations, North–South relations, survivalist/lifeboat ethics, resource and land conservation, and the social movement organization/non-governmental organization/
Judges must be sometimes cautious and sometimes bold. Judges must respect both the traditions of the past and the convenience of the present. Judges must reconcile liberty and authority; the whole and its parts. Impartial, independent and positive justice is the foundation of the efficiency of the government. Governance is the prerogative of the legislature being a popularly elected body of the people. The executive is responsible for the proper enforcement of the laws made by the legislature. But when the legislature does not bother about the rights and liberties of the individuals and the executive becomes apathetic in the matters of implementation of the laws, the judiciary is the only way out to act as the engine of social welfare to secure justice for every citizen in the various spheres of life whether it is child labour or environment or human rights. Judicial activism is nothing but an expanded role of the judiciary as it encompasses an area of the legislative vacuum. It is an effort to revitalize the system through the provision of simplest, fastest and inexpensive access to individual. This paper attempts to deal with questions such as what is judicial activism? How does Indian Constitution provide judicial activism? How does the concept of judicial activism come into existence in the Indian polity? To what extent the judicial activism has improved the quality of governance in India? Adapted from the source document.
Across the globe, people are challenging the agro-industrial food system and its exploitation of people and resources, reduction of local food varieties, and negative health consequences. In this collection leading international anthropologists explore food activism across the globe to show how people speak to, negotiate, or cope with power through food. Who are the actors of food activism and what forms of agency do they enact? What kinds of economy, exchanges, and market relations do they practice and promote? How are they organized and what are their scales of political action and power relations? Each chapter explores why and how people choose food as a means of forging social and economic justice, covering diverse forms of food activism from individual acts by consumers or producers to organized social groups or movements. The case studies embrace a wide geographical spectrum including Cuba, Sri Lanka, Egypt, Mexico, Italy, Canada, France, Colombia, Japan, and the USA.This is the first book to examine food activism in diverse local, national, and transnational settings, making it essential reading for students and scholars in anthropology and other fields interested in food, economy, politics and social change.
"Drawing upon the idea of the "impossible activism" of undocumented immigrants, Amalia Pallares argues that those without legal status defy this "impossible" context by relying on the politicization of the family to challenge justice within contemporary immigration law. The culmination of a seven-year-long ethnography of undocumented immigrants and their families in Chicago, as well as national immigrant politics, Family Activism examines the ways in which the family has become politically significant"--
"Exploring contemporary debates and developments in Roma-related research and forms of activism, this volume argues for taking up reflexivity as practice in these fields, and advocates a necessary renewal of research sites, methods, and epistemologies. The contributors gathered here - whose professional trajectories often lie at the confluence between activism, academia, and policy or development interventions - are exceptionally well placed to reflect on mainstream practices in all these fields, and, from their particular positions, envision a reimagining of these practices."--Provided by publisher
Netroots activist organizations are increasingly turning to digital analytics in order to listen to their supporters, monitor public sentiment, experiment with new tactics, and develop strategies that can succeed in the new media environment. This work discusses the rise of 'analytic activism,' including both its strengths and its limitations.
Islamic activism and social movement theory / Quintan Wiktorowicz -- From marginalization to massacres : a political process explanation of GIA violence in Algeria / Mohammed M. Hafez -- Violence as contention in the Egyptian Islamic movement / Mohammed M. Hafez and Quintan Wiktorowicz -- Repertoires of contention in contemporary Bahrain / Fred H. Lawson -- Hamas as social movement / Glenn E. Robinson -- The networked world of Islamist social movements / Diane Singerman -- Islamist women in Yemen : informal nodes of activism / Janine A. Clark -- Collective action with and without Islam : mobilizing the bazaar in Iran / Benjamin Smith -- The islah party in Yemen : political opportunities and coalition building in a transitional polity / Jillian Schwedler -- Interests, ideas, and Islamist outreach in Egypt / Carrie Rosefsky Wickham -- Making conversation permissible : Islamism and reform in Saudi Arabia / Gwenn Okruhlik -- Opportunity spaces, identity, and Islamic meaning in Turkey / M. Hakan Yavuz -- Social movement theory and Islamic studies / Charles Kurzman
Activism on the Web examines the everyday tensions that political activists face as they come to terms with the increasingly commercialized nature of web technologies and sheds light on an important, yet under-investigated, dimension of the relationship between contemporary forms of social protest and internet technologies. Drawing on anthropological and ethnographic research amongst three very different political groups in the UK, Italy and Spain, the book argues that activists' everyday internet uses are largely defined by processes of negotiation with digital capitalism. These processes of negotiation are giving rise to a series of collective experiences, which are defined by the tension between activists' democratic needs on one side and the cultural processes reinforced by digital capitalism on the other. In looking at the encounter between activist cultures and digital capitalism, the book focuses in particular on the tension created by self-centered communication processes and networked-individualism, by corporate surveillance and data-mining, and by fast-capitalism and the temporality of immediacy. Activism on the Web suggests that if we want to understand how new technologies are affecting political participation and democratic processes, we should not focus on disruption and novelty, but we should instead explore the complex dialectics between digital discourses and digital practices; between the technical and the social; between the political economy of the web and its lived critique.