Both in the UK and in the US, we observe puzzling gender asymmetries in the propensity to outmarry: Black men are more likely to have white spouses than Black women, but the opposite is true for Chinese: Chinese men are half less likely to be married to a White person than Chinese women. We argue that differences in height distributions, combined with a simple preference for a taller husband, can partly explain these ethnic-specific gender asymmetries. Blacks are taller than Asians, and we argue that this significantly affects their marriage prospects with whites. We provide empirical support for this hypothesis using data from the Millenium Cohort Study, which contains valuable and unique information on heights of married couples.
In the previous article it was evident that sport-specific testing indicated superiority of performance for subject 1 (Sl). However, the battery of anthropometric and general fitness tests currently used by the Canadian Canoeing and Kayak Team Program show superiority for subject (S2). S2 was larger (BMI, 25.9 versus 20.9; WHR,0.87 versus 0.81) with less fat (% BODY FAT 5.5 versus 8.2), as well as superior in two of the three general muscular power tests. The discussion of this paper will center on sport-specific versus non-specific testing in regards to their performance associated predictive power.
Objective: Patellar tendinopathy has been reported to be associated with many intrinsic risk factors. Few have been fully investigated. This cross-sectional study examined the anthropometric and physical performance results of elite junior basketball players with normal or abnormal patellar tendons to see if any measures were associated with changes in tendon morphology.
BACKGROUND: In some animal studies, perfluorinated alkyl substances are suggested to induce weight gain. Human epidemiological studies investigating these associations are sparse. OBJECTIVE: We examined pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluoro-octane sulfonate (PFOS) and the prevalence of offspring overweight (> 1 SD) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) > 0.5 at 5-9 years of age. Methods: Sera from 1,022 pregnant women enrolled in the INUENDO cohort (2002-2004) from Greenland and Kharkiv (Ukraine) were analyzed for PFOA and PFOS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Relative risks (RR) of being overweight and having WHtR > 0.5 in relation to continuous and categorized (tertiles) PFOA and PFOS were calculated at follow-up (2010-2012) using generalized linear models. RESULTS: Pooled PFOA median (range) was 1.3 (0.2-5.1) and PFOS median (range) was 10.8 (0.8-73.0) ng/mL. For each natural logarithm-unit (ln-unit) increase of pregnancy PFOA, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 1.53] in Greenlandic children. In Ukrainian children, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.44) for each ln-unit increase of pregnancy PFOA. Prenatal exposure to PFOS was not associated with overweight in country-specific or pooled analysis. The adjusted RR of having WHtR > 0.5 for each ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOA was 1.30 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.74) in the pooled analysis. For 1-ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOS, the adjusted RR of having a WHtR > 0.5 was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.82) in the pooled analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures may be associated with child waist-to-height ratio > 0.5. Prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures were not associated with overweight.
Identifying the anthropometric measures of successful and less successful handball players may be helpful in developing a talent identification and development model, allowing for the determination of key physical capacities required for elite performance. The purpose of the study was to describe the anthropometric characteristics, including age, standing stature, body mass and body mass index (BMI) in handball players who participated in the 2013 Men’s Handball World Championships. Secondly, the objective was to identify the possible differences in these parameters in terms of individual playing positions (goalkeeper, back, center back, wing, line player). Rosters with handball player’s age, standing stature, and body mass were obtained from the International Handball Federation website. The research material included 409 handball players (24 teams). National teams were organized by their ranks and sub-grouped using their continents and playing positions. The results of the analyses of variance demonstrated significant differences in age (F=2.30; p=0.044; Partial ŋ2=0.028), standing stature (F=14.02; p=0.0001; Partial ŋ2=0.148), and body mass (F=5.88; p=0.0001; Partial ŋ2=0.068) among the groups (G1–G6). Players in G1 had the highest standing stature and body mass, while players in G6 had the lowest age and body mass values. The backs and line players were the tallest. In addition, the measurement of body mass showed that the line players had the highest body mass and BMI values. In conclusion, this study presented anthropometric data that differentiated levels of success in male handball teams playing in the 2013 world championships. This information should serve as a reference for the average standing stature, body mass, and BMI of handball players for particular positions at the professional level.
Background: Overuse injury to the patellar tendon (patellar tendinopathy) is a major reason for interrupted training and competition for elite athletes. In both sexes, the prevalence of unilateral and bilateral tendinopathy has been shown to differ. It has been proposed that bilateral pathology may have a different aetiology from unilateral pathology. Investigation of risk factors that may be unique to unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy in female athletes may reveal insights into the aetiology of this condition.
Cilj ove studije bio je istražiti proturječni utjecaj antropometrije na kliničku težinu i prognozu akutnoga infarkta miokarda sa ST-elevacijom (STEMI). Prospektivno smo analizirali 250 bolesnika s akutnim STEMI liječenih primarnom perkutanom koronarnom intervencijom (rujan 2011. – rujan 2012.). Oni su grupirani prema antropometrijskim parametrima: indeks tjelesne mase (BMI) (<25,0; 25,0-29,9; ≥30,0 kg/m²), opseg struka (WC) (<102/88, ≥102/88 cm), omjer struk/bokovi (WHR) (<0,90/0,85, ≥0,90/0,85) i struk/tjelesna visina (WHtR) (<53/49, 53/49-62/57, ≥63/58). Skupine su analizirane prema bazičnim te parametrima težine (klinički, laboratorijski, ehokardiografski, koronarografski, bolničke komplikacije) i prognoze (glavni neželjeni kardiovaskularni događaji (MACE) i duljina bolovanja (SLD) tijekom 12 mjeseci praćenja). Bolesnici s BMI <25,0 kg/m2 imali su najveću učestalost dispneje, a oni s BMI ≥30,0 kg/m2 najdulju hospitalizaciju i najšire stentove; bolesnici s WHR ≥0,90/0,85 učestalije su imali značajno stenozirane proksimalne/srednje koronarne segmente, dok su oni s WHtR ≥63/58 imali najveću učestalost srčanog zatajivanja i ukupnih bolničkih komplikacija (p<0,05). BMI <25,0 kg/m2 povećava (odds ratio (OR) 2,00, confidence interval (CI) [1,09-3,68], p=0,026), a BMI 25,0-29,9 kg/m2 smanjuje (OR 0,52, CI [0,30-0,91], p=0,022) rizik dispneje; WHR ≥0.90/0.85 povećava rizik značajne stenoze proksimalnih/srednjih koronarnih segmenata (OR 3,34, CI [1,13-9,86], p=0,029), a WHtR ≥63/58 srčanog zatajenja (OR 2,05, CI [1,13-3,71], p=0,017) i ukupnih bolničkih komplikacija (OR 1,94, CI [1,13-3,33], p=0,017) (p<0,05). Zaključno, WHR i WHtR su bolji antropometrijski parametri od BMI u predviđanju težine akutnog STEMI, dok WC nema utjecaja. Antropometrija nema utjecaja na prognozu. ; The aim of this study was to investigate the controversial influence of anthropometry on clinical severity and prognosis of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We prospectively analyzed 250 patients with acute STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (September 2011 – September 2012). They were grouped according to the following anthropometric parameters: body mass index (BMI) (<25.0, 25.0-29.9, ≥30.0 kg/m²), waist circumference (WC) (<102/88, ≥102/88 cm), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (<0.90/0.85, ≥0.90/0.85) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (<53/49, 53/49-62/57, ≥63/58). The groups were analyzed by baseline, as well as severity (clinical, laboratory, echocardiography, coronary angiography, in-hospital complications) and prognostic parameters (major adverse cardiovascular events and sick leave duration during 12-month follow up). Patients with BMI <25.0 kg/m2 had the highest rates of dyspnea and those with BMI ≥30.0 kg/m² had the longest hospitalization and widest stents; patients with WHR ≥0.90/0.85 had higher rates of significantly stenosed proximal/middle coronary segments, while those with WHtR ≥63/58 had the highest rates of heart failure and total in-hospital complications (p<0.05). BMI <25.0 kg/m2 increased (odds ratio (OR) 2.00, confidence interval (CI) [1.09-3.68], p=0.026) and BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 reduced (OR 0.52, CI [0.30-0.91], p=0.022) the risk of dyspnea; WHR ≥0.90/0.85 increased the risk of significant proximal/middle coronary segment stenosis (OR 3.34, CI [1.13-9.86], p=0.029) and WHtR ≥63/58 the risk of heart failure (OR 2.05, CI [1.13-3.71], p=0.017) and total in-hospital complications (OR 1.94, CI [1.13-3.33], p=0.017) (p<0.05). In conclusion, WHR and WHtR are better anthropometric parameters than BMI in predicting acute STEMI severity, while WC has no influence on it. Anthropometry has no influence on prognosis.