Describes different types of citizen participation in the US, focusing on the planning process for West Virginia's Monongahela National Forest, 1979-86, and the initiative to ban clearcutting in the state of Maine on which a referendum was held on Nov. 5, 1996.
Argues that science has not lived up to its promise to work for the benefit of society as a whole, because of the narrow perspectives that basic & applied researchers take to their work. Among the barriers to broadening those perspectives is the myth that: the overriding purpose of science in human affairs is prediction; such predictions are prerequisites for major policy decisions; & scientific inputs to these decisions are objective & value-free. This myth is challenged from three standpoints -- epistemology, the historical context, & contemporary case studies -- as a step toward improving the responsibility & accountability of science to society. 79 References. Adapted from the source document.
The most exciting prospect in Latin American political economy and public policy is the possibility of pursuing the objectives of equity and efficiency through the same neoclassical policy instruments. In light of conventional views, this convergence is remarkable, perhaps even shocking. We often juxtapose efficiency and equity, along with the ideological positions associated with each. It is common to link Leftist political approaches both to statism and to progressive income distribution, thereby linking statism to progress.
It is contended that policy sciences in the US & Europe have entered an era in which "positivism" has been severely shaken, simplistic behavioralist approaches have been abandoned, & the importance of contextual, interdisciplinary, problem-oriented inquiry has been reaffirmed. Challenges posed by the new "economic imperialism" approach to social science issues are examined, & points of similarity & dissimilarity between neoclassical economics & policy sciences are explored in detail. It is hoped that the expansion of the economic approach will stimulate a fresh examination of the application of policy science to economic theory & arenas. 10 References. K. Hyatt