The Investment Chapter of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) can be seen as an unofficial blueprint of future EU Investment Agreements and Chapters. It was developed under immense public pressure and had to fulfil multiple conditions resulting from the EU constitutional framework. This contribution highlights the political and juridical background of EU investment policy, and then analyses the most significant new approaches in international investment law - both with regard to substantive standards and investor-State dispute settlement - as exemplified in the CETA. With regard to the substance, it can be witnessed that states are more proactive in defining investment protection standards, leaving less discretion for adjudicators. With regard to dispute settlement, the EU managed to introduce a completely new Investment Court System (ICS) with preselected adjudicators and an appellate mechanism. In light of all these developments, this article argues that we are currently facing a complete change of paradigms in EU investment law, heading towards the EU's long-term goal of establishing a Multilateral Investment Court (MIC).
This open access book considers the potential setup for a future Multilateral Investment Court (MIC). The option of an MIC was first discussed by the EU Commission in 2016 and has since been made an official element of the EU Common Commercial Policy. In 2017, UNCITRAL also decided to discuss the possibility of an MIC, and on 20 March 2018, the Council of the EU gave the EU Commission the mandate to negotiate the creation of an MIC. The "feasibility study" presented here is intended to contribute to a broader discussion on the options for a new international court specialized in investment protection. The cornerstones of such a new permanent court are a strict orientation on the rule of law, reduced costs of investment protection, transparency considerations, aspects of consistency in case law, and the effective enforceability of MIC decisions.
"The aim of this book is to describe and explain the investment protection standards typically contained in international investment agreements (IIAs) as applied by investment tribunals. It will provide a basis for analysis, criticism, and argument. In this book we do not offer our own views on how investment standards should be interpreted. Rather, we have collected, analysed and systematized the sometimes heterogeneous, if not contradictory, interpretations reached by various investment tribunals. Thus, this book permits a stocktaking of how tribunals have addressed arguments and interests of parties and stakeholders in the area of investment arbitration. It is neither a critique nor an apology of the existing system"--