Introduction, Keynes's Own IS-LM Approach -- Prologue to Keynes's IS-LM, 1930 to 1932 -- The Advent of Keynes's IS-LM, 1933 -- "The Missing Link": Keynes's Own Lecture Notes, December 4, 1933, Impact and Implications -- Reconstructing Keynes's IS-LM Approach, 1931 to 1937 -- Keynes's Equations and Early Post-General Theory IS-LM Models -- The Legacy of December 1933: Re-Interpreting Mr Keynes.
Background: The use of telehealth has increased as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. As sports at all levels resume, sports medicine physicians may be interested in how telehealth can be used for concussion care. Questions/Purpose: We sought to assess how telehealth has been used in the baseline testing, diagnosis, and/or management of concussion. Secondarily, we sought to assess the strengths and weaknesses of telehealth for concussion care and identify aspects of concussion care for which telehealth has not yet been studied. Methods: A systematic review was performed in September 2020 of PubMed and Embase using the following terms: concuss*, "mild traumatic brain," "head injur*," telehealth, telemedicine, telecare, "mobile health," m-health, virtual. Studies included were original research articles investigating the use of telehealth in the care of concussion (including baseline testing, diagnosis, and management), published in English, and had full text available. Results: A total of 356 articles were screened, of which 5 were determined to meet inclusion criteria. These articles described the use of telehealth for managing concussion in military and rural settings. No articles involved the use of telehealth for baseline concussion testing of athletes or for sideline evaluation. Conclusion: Despite the limited original research on the use of telehealth for concussion care, the articles identified provide a foundation for exploring the potential value of telehealth in the office practice and sports team setting. Telehealth may expand the ability of a sports medicine physician to provide timely and effective concussion care to athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. More rigorous research is needed.
Intro -- Foreword -- Introduction -- Contents -- List of Participants -- Part I Guggenheim Prize Lecture -- Unfulfilled Expectations: One Economist's History -- 1 What Did You and I Expect? -- 2 M.I.T. and Miguel Sidrauski -- 3 Rational Expectations -- 4 Dynamics and Complexity -- 5 Two Sorts of Expectations -- 6 Boundedly Rational Expectations -- 7 Hindsight: Intellectual Odyssey or Wild Goose Chase? -- References -- Part II Expectations and Economic Thought: Classics and Moderns -- Expectations and Its Variants: The Nuanced Role of Expectations in Classical Economics -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Expectational Fallacies -- 2.1 Expectations Regarding the Beneficial Nature of Competitive Institutions -- 2.2 Moral Expectations -- 2.3 A Note on the Dynamic Aspect of Expectations -- 3 Expectations and Anticipations in Smith's Narrative -- 4 Conclusions -- References -- Expectations, Conjectures and Beliefs. The Legacy of Marshall, Kahn and Keynes -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Marshall -- 3 Kahn -- 4 Keynes -- 5 The Role of Expectations in Generating Market Instability -- 6 Observation-Based Expectations -- 7 Expectations as Dividing Issue -- 8 Some Concluding Remarks -- References -- Between Pigou and Keynes: Champernowne on Employment and Expectations -- 1 Sorting Out Cambridge Expectations -- 2 Labour Supply and Money-Wage Dynamics -- 3 Monetary Policy and the Trend of Real Wages -- 4 Keynes Versus Pigou on the Role of Expectations -- 5 The Champernowne Puzzle -- References -- Keynes and Friedman on Expectations Mismatches During the Great Depression -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Friedman and the Case for Purely Monetary Disorders -- 2.1 Friedman's Narrative of the Great Depression -- 2.2 Expectations and Friedman's Rationale for the Great Depression -- 3 Keynes and the Case for Self-feeding Real Disorders.
ObjectiveOver the past five decades, numerous researchers in common‐law jurisdictions have reported that jurors often fail to understand and apply the law presented to them by the trial judge. Several researchers have attempted to improve understanding of the law through revising language and utilizing instructional aides. The present study examines a novel method of instructing the jury, known as the "fact‐based" approach, which embeds legal concepts in a series of logically ordered written factual questions that the jury must answer to reach a verdict.MethodsThe study compared 287 jurors in 45 trials who received "fact‐based" instructions in New Zealand against 176 jurors in 41 trials who received standard form instructions in Australia. Participants in the study were compared on their ability to perform three tasks—selecting legal concepts in a recognition task, paraphrasing concepts in a recall task, and applying legal concepts to legally unambiguous factual scenarios.ResultsAfter controlling for trial‐related factors such as length of trial, word count, and readability of instructions, as well as the self‐reported level of education of participants, the study found that jurors receiving fact‐based directions performed significantly better on application‐based tasks but not significantly different on recall or recognition tasks.ConclusionThe findings suggest that fact‐based instructions may have utility for enhancing the jury's ability to resolve questions of fact in accordance with the law.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine if a difference existed between peak speed attained when performing a sprint with maximal acceleration versus from a gradual build-up. Additionally, this investigation sought to compare the actual peak speed achieved when instructed to reach 75% and 90% of maximum speed. Field sport athletes (n = 21) performed sprints over 60 m under the experimental conditions, and the peak speed was assessed with a radar gun. The gradual build-up to maximum speed (8.30 ± 0.40 m∙s−1) produced the greater peak speed (effect size = 0.3, small) than the maximum acceleration run (8.18 ± 0.40 m∙s−1), and the majority of participants (62%) followed this pattern. For the sub-maximum runs, the actual mean percentage of maximum speed reached was 78 ± 6% for the 75% prescribed run and 89 ± 5% for the 90% prescription. The errors in attaining the prescribed peak speeds were large (~15%) for certain individuals, especially for the 75% trial. Sprint training for maximum speed should be performed with a gradual build-up of speed rather than a maximum acceleration. For sub-maximum interval training, the ability to attain the prescribed target peak speed can be challenging for field sport athletes, and therefore where possible, feedback on peak speeds reached should be provided after each repetition.
"Real Business Cycle (RBC) Theory holds that random fluctuations in productivity are what causes the business cycle. Economists have come up with different models over the years which attempt to explain patterns in real business cycles, though the two which dominate proceedings are Kydland & Prescott's and Long & Plosser's models. The purpose of this book is to describe the intellectual process by which RBC models developed. The approach taken focuses on the core elements in the development of RBC models: (i) building blocks, (ii) catalysts, and (iii) meta-syntheses. This is done by detailed examination of all available unpublished variorum drafts of the key papers in the RBC story, so as to determine the origins of the ideas. The analysis of the process their discovery is then set out followed by explanations of the evolution and dissemination of the models, from first generation papers through full blown research programs. This is supplemented by interviews and correspondence with the individuals who were at the center of the development of RBC models, such as Kydland, Prescott, Long, Plosser, King, Lucas and Barro, among others. This book gets stright to the heart of the debates surrounding RBC models and as such contributes to a real assessment of their impact on modern macroeconomics. The volume, therefore, will interest all scholars looking at macroeconomics as well as historians of economic thought more generally"--
The purpose of this book is to describe the intellectual process by which Real Business Cycle models were developed. The approach taken focuses on the core elements in the development of RBC models: (i) building blocks, (ii) catalysts, and (iii) meta-syntheses. This is done by detailed examination of all available unpublished variorum drafts of the key papers in the RBC story, so as to determine the origins of the ideas. The analysis of the process their discovery is then set out followed by explanations of the evolution and dissemination of the models, from first generation papers through ful.
In Time Series Analysis and Adjustment the authors explain how the last four decades have brought dramatic changes in the way researchers analyze economic and financial data on behalf of economic and financial institutions and to provide statistics. An understanding of time series and the application and knowledge of related time series adjustment procedures is essential in areas such as risk management, business cycle analysis, and forecasting. The case studies in this book demonstrate that time series adjustment methods can be efficaciously applied and utilized, for both analysis and forecas.
This book combines historical and policy-oriented perspectives on the relevance of the Keynesian approach for economic theory, policy, and crisis analysis. The first part focuses on historical, theoretical, and methodological issues, and puts them in context with current developments. The second part focuses on the application of the Keynesian approach to modeling the economy, policy-making, and analyzing the ongoing crisis of the early 21st century. Bringing together contributions by leading macroeconomists such as Laidler, Cukierman, Colander and Boyer, and leading historians of economics su.