The constructed wetland system was installed at a 3,520 head swine finishing facility in Onslow County, North Carolina. The design loading rate of 25 kg/ha/day was based on a 5-year prototype study with loading rates ranging from 3 to 25 kg/ha/day and nitrogen removal rates from 98 to 87 % respectively (Rice et al.). The existing anaerobic lagoon was cleaned out and resealed to serve as a storage pond for the wetland effluent. Wastewater from the swine houses flows to lift stations at each barn and is then pumped to a mechanical solids separator (Figure 1). Separator effluent flows through two parallel constructed wetlands with a combined surface area of 8 acres and then to a 2-acre storage pond. Excess liquid from the storage pond and separated solids are applied to cropland used to grow corn, wheat, and soybeans as well as pine trees. The evaluated constructed wetland system was a low-tech, low-energy alternative to a conventional anaerobic lagoon system. This low-tech system produced effluent with lower nutrient concentrations and less land was required for terminal land application than the lagoon system. Constructed wetland systems can employ higher levels of technology and costs to obtain increased nitrogen and phosphorus removals, which would
Published in 2013 by the United Nations Educational, Scienti c and Cultural Organisation The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
this report, and to Bruce Allen of Wharton who provided them to us in machine readable form. We thank Paul Pautler, Ed Rastatter and Jim McDonald for comments on an earlier draft. We also are grateful to Lynn Carpenter, Karen Condor, Effie Georges, Dolly Howarth, Andrew Kim, George Pascoe, and Carolyn Samuels for their research and programming assistance. The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Commission or any individual Commissioner. With respect to airline deregulation, a 1990 Department of 1 Transportation study concluded that "air travelers have benefited from the changes brought about under deregulation by receiving more service at a lower cost." (U. S. Department of Transportation (1990), Executive Summary, p. 1.) For railroads, which were deregulated by the 1980 Staggers Act, a 1990 GAO Study concluded that "shippers have benefited from reduced railroad regulation. Since 1980, rail rates, adjusted for inflation, have declined an average of about 22 percent. In addition, service has improved: train reliability has increased and freight car shortages have declined." (U.S. General Accounting Office (1990), p. 4. See also Barnekov and Kleit (1990) and Burton (1993). Winston et al. (1990) examined both railroads and interstate trucking, the latter having been deregulated by the 1980 Motor Carrier Act (MCA) and concluded that federal deregulation of these two industries provides net benefits to consumers of over $16 billion (1988 dollars) each and every year. The focus of this study is economic regulation, e.g., rate 2 regulation and entry controls. We do not examine safety regulation. Unless otherwise noted, we will use the word "regulation" to refer only to economic, and not safety, regulation. For a discus.
The authors appreciate the assistance in data management and technical support given to them by a number of other City employees. The authors also thank the many agencies, organizations and individuals who have provided valuable input into the development of the Coal Tar Analysis.