News in a changing information system -- News stories: four information biases that matter -- Citizens and the news: public opinion and information processing -- How politicians make the news -- How journalists report the news -- Inside the profession: the objectivity crisis -- The political economy of news -- The future of news in a time of change
Technology-enabled networks of contention differ from physically co-present networks in that communication more saliently structures relations among actors. Technology platforms may even take on some roles of organizations in providing information, distributing resources, and coordinating action. Although many observers claim that online networks tend to concentrate public displays of attention and recognition in power-law hierarchies, we propose that technology-enabled contentious networks may seek or avoid concentrated hierarchies as reflections of the participants' underlying values and technology preferences. The article identifies three ideal type power signatures in technology-enabled networks-highly concentrated, moderately concentrated, and dispersed. Different power signatures can result in similar political outcomes, suggesting that none of them represents a generally more effective way to organize power in networks. However, in particular situations, different power configurations can affect how action is framed, how individuals become engaged, and the degree of fit between mobilizations and political contexts. Adapted from the source document.
1. Introduction Thomas Risse 1. - Part I. How to Grasp the Europeanization of Public Spheres: Theory, Methods, Empirics: 2. Theorizing communication flows within a European public sphere Barbara Pfetsch and Annett Heft 29. - 3. How advanced is the Europeanization of public spheres? Comparing German and European structures of political communication Ruud Koopmans 53. - 4. National media as transnational discourse arenas: the case of humanitarian military interventions Cathleen Kantner 84. - 5. European issue publics online: the cases of climate change and fair trade W. Lance Bennett, Sabine Lang and Alexandra Segerberg 108. - Part II. Consequences: Does the Europeanization of Public Spheres Matter?: 6. European public spheres, the politicization of EU affairs, and its consequences Thomas Risse 141. - 7. Media and identity: the paradox of legitimacy and the making of European citizens Sarah Harrison and Michael Bruter 165. - 8. The restructuring of political conflict in Europe and the politicization of European integration Edgar Grande and Hanspeter Kriesi 190. - Part III. Theoretical and Normative Implications: 9. Identity, Europe and the world beyond public spheres Jeffrey T. Checkel 227. - 10. Democracy, identity, and European public spheres Andreas Follesdal 247
The news about democracy : information crisis in american politics -- News stories : four information biases that matter -- Citizens and the news: public opinion and information processing -- How politicians make the news -- How journalists report the news -- Inside the profession : objectivity and political authority bias -- The political economy of news and the end of a journalism era -- All the news that fits democracy : solutions for citizens, politicians, and journalists
This article proposes a framework for understanding large-scale individualized collective action that is often coordinated through digital media technologies. Social fragmentation and the decline of group loyalties have given rise to an era of personalized politics in which individually expressive personal action frames displace collective action frames in many protest causes. This trend can be spotted in the rise of large-scale, rapidly forming political participation aimed at a variety of targets, ranging from parties and candidates, to corporations, brands, and transnational organizations. The group-based "identity politics" of the "new social movements" that arose after the 1960s still exist, but the recent period has seen more diverse mobilizations in which individuals are mobilized around personal lifestyle values to engage with multiple causes such as economic justice (fair trade, inequality, and development policies), environmental protection, and worker and human rights.
From the Arab Spring and los indignados in Spain, to Occupy Wall Street (and beyond), large-scale, sustained protests are using digital media in ways that go beyond sending and receiving messages. Some of these action formations contain relatively small roles for formal brick and mortar organizations. Others involve well-established advocacy organizations, in hybrid relations with other organizations, using technologies that enable personalized public engagement. Both stand in contrast to the more familiar organizationally managed and brokered action conventionally associated with social movement and issue advocacy. This article examines the organizational dynamics that emerge when communication becomes a prominent part of organizational structure. It argues that understanding such variations in large-scale action networks requires distinguishing between at least two logics that may be in play: The familiar logic of collective action associated with high levels of organizational resources and the formation of collective identities, and the less familiar logic of connective action based on personalized content sharing across media networks. In the former, introducing digital media do not change the core dynamics of the action. In the case of the latter, they do. Building on these distinctions, the article presents three ideal types of large-scale action networks that are becoming prominent in the contentious politics of the contemporary era. ; AuthorCount:2;