This study describes the political behavior of the community in the election of the village head of Gunung Tiga Village, Ulu Ogan District, OKU Regency for the 2020-2026 Period. The formulation of the problem in this research are: 1. political behavior of the people of Gunung Tiga Village, in the 2020 village head election, 2. What factors influence political behavior in village elections, the people of Gunung Tiga Village, Ulu Ogan District, Ogan Komering Ulu Regency. The method used in this study is a quantitative method to determine voter behavior by distributing questionnaires to the people of Gunung Tiga Village using a voter behavior approach. This approach aims to determine the results of voting behavior in the people of Gunung Tiga Village. This research can be concluded that the political behavior of the people of Gunung Tiga Village can be broadly classified into three sociological, psychological, and rational choice aspects. Sociological approaches based on the community conduct elections by looking at the regional background of the candidate for the village head and there are also ethnic background factors that influence people's choices.
Novice teachers face several challenges during their first years of socialization in schools, often feeling unprepared in managing the full range of teaching duties. If teacher retention and attrition are to be improved, research on the difficulties encountered by novice teachers in diverse contexts and cultures is required. There is a lack of studies regarding physical education (PE) teachers' induction processes, especially outside Anglophone countries. The aim of this study was, from an occupational socialization perspective, to examine how Swedish novice PE teachers experience, perceive and manage their induction process. Through a single-case study design with embedded multiple units of analysis, we interviewed eight Swedish novice PE teachers. Based on thematic analysis, the results show that Swedish novice PE teachers experience several challenges related to reality shock, marginalization and isolation during induction. We identified three approaches used by the novices as central to successfully managing challenges of induction in the Swedish context: (1) socializing into a community of colleagues, (2) performing the role of the PE teacher as health promoter and (3) maintaining a critical teaching perspective. We conclude that these novice teachers' socialization relies heavily on the individual, and therefore we argue that the induction process could be further facilitated by formal organizational support. This paper confirms long-standing difficulties reported in other countries, and contributes with new knowledge of how the approaches used when managing challenges of induction are contextually dependent due to the social and political surroundings of education.
This paper examines initiatives that assisted energy poor and energy vulnerable households in Ontario, Canada during 2003 to 2018. Providing a conceptualization for energy poverty and vulnerability, which lack a formal legislative definition in Canadian policy, the paper discusses the history of Ontario's energy sector and the levels of 'energy burden' that brought energy prices to the fore of the public debate. It then reviews 40 initiatives that have assisted energy poor or energy vulnerable households, largely within broader policy areas of energy efficiency and energy savings, housing provision, poverty reduction, healthcare, and climate change mitigation. These initiatives are categorized into three main thematic areas of 1) financial support, 2) energy efficiency and savings, and 3) consumer protection. Further analysis shows that the initiatives largely address short-term needs and focus on the symptoms of energy poverty and vulnerability, rather than on preventative measures. The paper concludes that a more comprehensive approach is needed to address the underlying causes of energy poverty, to develop, target and evaluate effective solutions.
The Norwegian national identity is to be found in the countryside. Here, a cultural uniqueness had remained during the 400 year long union with Denmark. The mode of life in the countryside and aesthetic of untouched nature became symbols of the Norwegian national soul. Derived from this fascination of nature, friluftsliv became a deeply ingrained part of Norwegian culture. Friluftsliv can be roughly translated into "out-doors life", and entails spending time in, hiking, and experiencing nature. The term is said to originate from the poem "Paa vidderne" (On the Heights) by Henrik Ibsen I den øde Sæterstue Al min rige Fangst jeg sanker; Der er Krak og der er Grue, Friluftsliv for mine Tanker. - Henrik Ibsen In our Pre-Diploma, we devised a strategy which applied Nordlandsbanen as a means of transportation for inland tourism. Nordlandsbanen is a 726 km long train ride, going from Trondheim in the south, to Bodø in the North. In connection to the stations, there are several hiking trails which lead into the highlands. We limited our focus to an area in and around Saltdalen - Svartisen National Park. Here, where we found the most extensive and intricate network of connections between hiking trails and train stops. However the network does have several missing pieces, which, if realised, would make hiking to and from the train stops more accessible. Based on a set of criterias, we found three sites where new projects could be built to further develop the network. The three sites are placed in different stages of travel. Site A is at a train stop, site B is on the border to the national park, and site C lies within the national park. One of the hiking trails in the national park is the historic trail, Telegrafruta. The trail originates from a telegraph line which was built during the 1860s. The harsh climate of the mountains required much maintenance, and several cabins were built for the workers to live in while working on the line. These cabins, together with remains of thousands of telegraph posts, make up the historic hiking trail. The first buildings to be erected in connection to Telegrafruta were two primitive stone cabins that were to provide shelter for the workers who worked on building the telegraph posts. They were built with stone found on site, and have a traditional dry stone double stacked wall construction. Our ambition is for the three projects to relate to each other and to the existing structures of the network, thus creating an identity for the network as a whole. For this reason, we have chosen stone as the constructive material for our projects. By adopting this specific feature the new projects would connect the historic route with the remaining hiking trails and the train route. The program varies from the different sites. At site A there will be a train station and sleeping accomodations for 20 people. The sleeping accommodation will have small private rooms and a large en-trance to store luggage. The two sites in the highlands have a similar program based on the same needs. None of the sites have water or electricity installed and will need proximity to running water. At site B we will build two small identical shelters. Site C will have the same program, but divided into two small sleeping annexes and one shared space building. There is a stove for effective heating, and an open fireplace to create light as well as heat. A small outhouse includes the toilet and storage space. Considering the different nature of the programs, the sites, and the logistics of building with stone, the projects do not have a similar architecture. In the highlands one cannot use large machines for heavy lifting, which means that the stone elements cannot become too large for people to lift, while on site A it is possible for the construction to consist of larger stone elements. The construction materials for Site B and C have to be brought in by helicopter or snow mobiles. To build in stone has been challenging as people in the professional environment of architecture have limited knowledge of stone as a construction material. Some of the difficulties lie in the unpredictability of the material in regards to cracks and hidden weaknesses in the material. With this in mind, we have chosen a traditional construction method for the shelters. The method is based on a dry stacking of stones, which means that there is no mortar used. To achieve a level of comfort in the shelters we have modified this traditional dry stacking and added insulation and wind barriers. This led to several challenges in regards to the stability of the wall. To solve these problems we designed a set of innovative solutions after discussing them with Engineer and Stone Mason Espen Marthinsen. At the train station the construction consists of stone columns and a stone core. The columns are unconventional in that they are more slender than ordinary stone columns. This is made possible by threading a steel rod through several stones and then tensioning the rod by tightening nuts on each end, which results in a post-tensioned stone column. Our project is an example of how one could develop the existing network of infrastructure already found at, or close to, a train station and a national park. As Nordlandsbanen is more than 700 km long and there are 16 national parks in Trøndelag and Nordland, we imagine that the idea of developing similar infrastructure can be applied to other places along the trails. We believe that to upgrade and further facilitate the existing infrastructure to meet the desired increase in visitors of the national parks is less damaging for the preservation areas than to just leave it be. Today's development in Norway of large areas with cabins is one of the larger threats towards nature and species diversity. Cabins are often built and equipped as a house, with water, electricity, and highly technological solutions. Our shelters are antidotal to this development. They are a nod to simpler times and democratise nature by facilitating for a larger number of people to experience nature. ; submittedVersion
This proposal is part of an ongoing research and presents the results on the perceptions and pedagogical practices experienced by students from various higher education degrees in Portuguese higher education institutions, during the period of social confinement determined by the Portuguese Government, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The main objective of the general research was to understand how Higher Education faculty and students experienced the digital transition to emergency education and the pedagogical practices adopted during the period. The research was based on a mixed methods approach and, in order to address the research objectives and describe the pedagogical practices implemented, specific instruments were developed for data collection. A questionnaire was developed, aimed at students, and interviews aimed at both students and faculty, focusing on technological and pedagogical dimensions, as well as the assessment of the experience. Data collection was carried out after the first lockdown, at the end of the first semester of 2020, and took place in eight higher education institutions. In this paper we will present a preliminary analysis of Questionnaire results related to two dimensions: online communication and assessment. ; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
Financed national funds through FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P., under the projects UIDB/04372/2020 ; This proposal is part of an ongoing research and presents the results on the perceptions and pedagogical practices experienced by students from various higher education degrees in Portuguese higher education institutions, during the period of social confinement determined by the Portuguese Government, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The main objective of the general research was to understand how Higher Education faculty and students experienced the digital transition to emergency education and the pedagogical practices adopted during the period. The research was based on a mixed methods approach and, in order to address the research objectives and describe the pedagogical practices implemented, specific instruments were developed for data collection. A questionnaire was developed, aimed at students, and interviews aimed at both students and faculty, focusing on technological and pedagogical dimensions, as well as the assessment of the experience. Data collection was carried out after the first lockdown, at the end of the first semester of 2020, and took place in eight higher education institutions. In this paper we will present a preliminary analysis of Questionnaire results related to two dimensions: online communication and assessment. ; LE@D, FCT ; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a largely ignored tropical disease and a leading cause of undifferentiated febrile illness in the areas of tsutsugamushi triangle caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is frequently diagnosed in South Asian countries, although clear epidemiological information is not available from Nepal. After the 2015 earthquake in Nepal, a sudden upsurge in scrub typhus cases was reported. The objective of this study was to investigate epidemiology of scrub typhus and its causative agents in humans, animals, and chigger mites to understand the ongoing transmission ecology. METHODS: Scrub typhus cases with confirmed diagnosis throughout the country were included in the analysis. Studies were concentrated in the Chitwan district, the site of a major outbreak in 2016. Additional nation-wide data from 2015 to 2017 available from the government database included to analyse the disease distribution by geographical mapping. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2017, 1239 scrub typhus cases were confirmed with the largest outbreak occurring in 2016 with 831 (67.1%) cases. The case fatality rate was 5.7% in 2015 which declined to 1.1% in 2017. A nationwide outbreak of scrub typhus was declared as the cases were detected in 52 out of the 75 districts of Nepal. Seasonal trend was observed with a peak during August and September. In addition to the human cases, the presence of O. tsutsugamushi was also confirmed in animals (rodents) and chigger mites (Leptotrombidium imphalum) from the outbreak areas of southern Nepal. CONCLUSION: The detection of O. tsutsugamushi in humans, animals, and chigger mites from outbreak locations and wide-spread reports of scrub typhus throughout the country consecutively for 3 years confirms the ongoing transmission of O. tsutsugamushi with a firmly established ecology in Nepal. The country's health system needs to be strengthened for systematic surveillance, early outbreak detection, and immediate actions including treatment and preventive measures. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version ...
Abstract Norway has a history of tough assimilation of the first migration of Roma people, known as the Tater/Romani people. The state introduced laws that discriminated against the Tater/Romani people. This article traces the international and national developments from discriminatory laws to laws against discrimination in Norway. With the recent appearance of immigrant Roma from Eastern Europe, Roma are once again on the political agenda of West European countries. Despite the many laws against discrimination that are now in place, this article demonstrates that the public still discriminates against Roma people. Two survey experiments reveal that the Roma are being directly discriminated against within the Norwegian society and indirectly discriminated against compared to other European Economic Area (EEA) immigrants. The article suggests that this could be related to a history of antiziganism in society. Furthermore, it appears that such attitudes are not easily changed by laws but demands broad social mobilisation.
In this Position Piece, I critically reflect upon some epistemological and political issues of interventions and intervention-oriented research in post-trafficking mental health care. I discuss three loci of friction within the framework of a critical global mental health approach to trafficking aftercare: ethnography, biomedical studies, and post-trafficking care. I address these loci through three case studies: two drawn from my own ethnographic fieldwork and one from a recent systematic review of biomedical studies on post-trafficking mental health. My discussion focuses on the limits of such activities when conducted as isolated interventions and highlights the need for radical interdisciplinary and participatory approaches.
While waiting for situations of crises and disasters to pass, refugees stay at sites of transition that are assumed to exist temporarily. This assumption is often unfounded, as emergency situations may last for decades. Meanwhile, the refugee camps remain and develop social and economic functions comparable to urban space. This conflict that is developed between the permanent built landscape (the city) and the temporary political status of its population (refugeehood) is a global phenomenon. A recent example is the Moria refugee camp on the Greek island of Lesvos. Established in 2015 for a capacity of 3000 people, the settlement today houses over 20 000 refugees and has a population density over twice as high as that of Manila, one of the densest cities on the planet. Since the Moria camp was intended to be transitory and temporary, the refugees continue to stay at a site where they neither want to stay nor are wanted. As the camp population continues to grow, food provisions and health services can't keep up, theft and violence become common, and fatal casualties are being reported regularly. This project intends to use urban design to establish an appropriate settlement suited for housing the refugee population of Lesvos. Through a discussion of the refugee space, a design proposal is developed to provide a life with dignity for everyone living in this 'Refugee City'. ; M-LA
A global movement is underway to harness the power of coordinated state policy to address the significant and interrelated challenges of environmental degradation, climate change, poverty, and energy insecurity. In May 2019 a grassroots coalition comprising a range of civil society groups—scientists, labour unions, Indigenous peoples, and youth—launched the Pact for a Green New Deal (PGND) in Canada, with more than 150 town hall meetings across the country. Participants called for 100% renewable energy, phase out of the oil sands, a 50% reduction in emissions by 2030, and the creation of 1 million new green jobs and reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples . A significant reorientation to the scale and direction of government expenditure, as happened in the American New Deal of the 1930s, can spur technical innovation but can also exacerbate inequalities. A Canadian green transition is significant globally given its high energy production, exports, and internal use. In this perspective piece we examine the transformative potential of a Canadian PGND by focusing on the social and political characteristics of energy infrastructure: the potential for 100% renewable energy, transitions for oil sands, energy democracy, Indigenous energy leadership, gender equity, and energy poverty. The actor coalitions emerging from these then forge specific energy transition pathways, whether just and inclusive, or not. The Canadian case highlights the complexities and opportunities that accompany countries with large geographies, fraught geo-political histories, strong federalism, inequalities of access to clean affordable energy, and an abundance of renewable energy. ; ISSN:2214-6296
Land-use intensification can increase provisioning ecosystem services, such as food and timber production, but it also drives changes in ecosystem functioning and biodiversity loss, which may ultimately compromise human wellbeing. To understand how changes in land-use intensity affect the relationships between biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and services, we built networks from correlations between the species richness of 16 trophic groups, 10 ecosystem functions, and 15 ecosystem services. We evaluated how the properties of these networks varied across land-use intensity gradients for 150 forests and 150 grasslands. Land-use intensity significantly affected network structure in both habitats. Changes in connectance were larger in forests, while changes in modularity and evenness were more evident in grasslands. Our results show that increasing land-use intensity leads to more homogeneous networks with less integration within modules in both habitats, driven by the belowground compartment in grasslands, while forest responses to land management were more complex. Land-use intensity strongly altered hub identity and module composition in both habitats, showing that the positive correlations of provisioning services with biodiversity and ecosystem functions found at low land-use intensity levels, decline at higher intensity levels. Our approach provides a comprehensive view of the relationships between multiple components of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and ecosystem services and how they respond to land use. This can be used to identify overall changes in the ecosystem, to derive mechanistic hypotheses, and it can be readily applied to further global change drivers. ; The work has been supported by the DFG Priority Program 1374 "Infrastructure-Biodiversity-Exploratories". S.S. was supported by the Spanish Government under Ramón y Cajal Contract RYC-2016-20604.
Chapter 1: Introduction -- Chapter 2 : Incidence of Child Labour –Global and Indian Estimates -- Chapter 3 : Types and Causes of Child Labour -- Chapter 4: Survey of Literature -- Chapter 5: Child Labour in General Equilibrium Framework & Effectiveness of Various Trade & Non-trade Policies -- Chapter 6: Conclusion