In Jan 1992, the decision to accept the five Central Asian nations added a Eurasian dimension to the Organization for Security & Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Three main reasons explain this choice by the participating OSCE nations: (1) Western countries are willing to seal the collapse of the USSR on the pan-European level. (2) Integration of these countries into OSCE may loosen their adhesion to Iranian fundamentalism. (3) Western countries want these new states to adhere to the principles of human rights. Several obstacles made this decision problematic: none of these five states has a democratic past, they have no experience in multilateral diplomacy, & they are traversed by tribal currents, with some destabilized since their independence. The author briefly describes the politics & actions of the OSCE & concludes that the Eurasian dimension remains a progressive process. E. Sanchez
The article is devoted to the attempts made by the UN to adapt to globalization through the decisions launched by the Millennium Summit (2000) & continued by the World Summit of 2005, whose outcome does certainly not enable the UN to move from multilateralism to a global world system. It focuses on the three main elements of UN reform (democratization of the Security Council, strengthening of UN capacity for conflict management & depoliticization of human rights activities) before concluding that the most probable scenario is, for an undetermined period, the prevalence of the status quo. Adapted from the source document.
This article provides an overwhelming account of human rights policies conducted by Western democracies since the terrorist attacks of 9/11. On the one hand, it analyzes the Orwellian drift of the Bush administration stemming from an anti-terrorist strategy overtly disrespectful of human rights & international humanitarian law. On the other hand, it underscores the erosion of the Rule of Law within a number of European States following their active or passive support of the Bush administration's anti-terror policy, & which has been loudly denounced by the parliamentary assemblies of both the Council of Europe (Marty Reports) & the European Union (Fava Report). Adapted from the source document.
This article offers a general inventory of the threats affecting post-Communist European security whether "new" (transnational, intra-state, non-military) or of a more traditional type (weapons of mass destruction, interstate conflicts). It provides an overview of the cooperation between the four major European security organizations -- namely NATO, the European Union, the Council of Europe & the OSCE. It also comments on the security regimes established at pan-European level, before drawing some concluding remarks on the fundamental role played by NATO & the European Union, as well as on the persistent unravelling of the transatlantic link due to the devastating foreign policy of the Bush administration. Adapted from the source document.