Intro -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Dedication -- Contents -- Part One: The Cottage and Christopher -- Chapter One -- Chapter Two -- Chapter Three -- Part Two: The Island and Ivy -- Chapter Four -- Chapter Five -- Chapter Six -- Chapter Seven -- Chapter Eight -- Chapter Nine -- Part Three: The Apparition and Anne -- Chapter Ten -- Chapter Eleven -- Chapter Twelve -- Chapter Thirteen -- Chapter Fourteen -- Chapter Fifteen -- Chapter Sixteen -- Chapter Seventeen -- Chapter Eighteen -- Chapter Nineteen -- Chapter Twenty -- Author's Note -- Acknowledgments -- Author biography.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Globally, too few children are breastfed as recommended. Commercial promotion of breast-milk substitutes (BMS) is one factor undermining breastfeeding globally. Although the International Code of Marketing of BMS prohibits all forms of marketing, promotion has been observed in digital environments. We aimed to understand the scope and impact of digital marketing for the promotion of BMS. RECENT FINDINGS: BMS are promoted strategically and in an integrated fashion across multiple digital channels (social media, manufacturer websites, online retailers, blogs, mobile apps and digital streaming services). Traditional marketing strategies like gifts, discounts and coupons are also disseminated digitally. Data mining, real-time direct-to-consumer advertising and partnering with peer-group social media influencers are additional avenues. Exposure to digital marketing is common. Research on the impact of digital marketing is scarce, but its negative impact on breastfeeding intention and initiation has been documented. Case reports from marketing industry press corroborate academic evidence by highlighting the benefits of digital marketing to BMS companies in recruiting new users and increasing sales. SUMMARY: To protect and promote breastfeeding, coordinated global action and strengthened national measures will be needed to implement, monitor and enforce the International Code in a digital context. Further action could include voluntary restrictions on BMS marketing by social media platforms and greater use of government-led data and health privacy regulation.
BACKGROUND: Front-of-pack (FoP) labeling on packaged foods is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce diet-related non-communicable diseases, but it has not yet been implemented in China. The introduction of FoP labeling is driven by multiple institutions and stakeholders. This study aimed to identify key institutional actors involved in FoP labeling and describe links between actors to support future FoP labeling policies and programmes in China. METHODS: The Net-Map method was adopted. We conducted Net-map activities with eight participants using face-to-face interviews between November 2020 and May 2021. Participants were asked to identify actors involved in the development and implementation of FoP labeling in China, describe networks among actors according to pre-defined link types (command, dissemination, funding, and technical assistance), and estimate influence of each actor within the FoP labeling landscape. Social network analysis measures of cohesion and centrality were used to describe each network. Gephi software was used for social network analysis and network visualization. RESULTS: Forty-one unique actors were identified across seven actor categories including government agencies (n = 14), technical support agencies (n = 7), professional associations (n = 10), food industry groups (n = 2), media groups (n = 4), international organizations (n = 3), and a consumer group (n = 1). Weighted influence scores among actors ranged from 0.13 to 3.13. The Department of Food Safety Standards, Risk Surveillance and Assessment of the National Health Commission (DFSSRSA of NHC) was the actor with the highest weighted influence score, followed by the Bureau of Disease Prevention and Control of National Health Commission, Chinese Nutrition Society, and the National Institute for Nutrition and Health of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. DFSSRSA of NHC played a central role in both command and technical assistance networks. State-owned media had the greatest betweenness and ...
Front-of-pack (FoP) labelling on foods is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to address the growing global burden of diet-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), but this policy has not yet been implemented in China. The aim of this study was to ascertain key stakeholders' views on barriers and facilitators to developing a feasible and acceptable FoP labelling policy in the Chinese context. Semistructured interviews were used to elicit opinions from diverse representatives in roles of FoP labelling policy influence. Participants were identified by purposive and snowball sampling. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was adopted to facilitate data collection and analysis. Themes and subthemes were generated using deductive and inductive approaches. Thirty participants were interviewed. The major barriers were the absence of national contextual analysis, perceived complexity of the process of policy development, disagreement on a preferred FoP labelling format, cost for the food industry, low priority compared to food safety policies, lack of existing regulatory framework or authorised nutrient profiling system, limited knowledge of FoP labelling, and the lack of planning and engagement with stakeholders. Facilitators included existing prerequisites, experiences and lessons from the pilot, policy coherence with Healthy China 2030, and support from external agents (e.g., WHO). Further efforts are required to develop and collate evidence to demonstrate the scientific, legal, and political feasibility of introducing effective FoP labelling.
AIM: Dietetic intervention delivered by Accredited Practising Dietitians is demonstrated to improve clinical outcomes of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to assess the accessibility to dietetic intervention for people with type 2 diabetes in Australia. METHODS: Prevalence data and dietitian workforce distribution data were sourced from Diabetes Australia and Dietitians Association of Australia, respectively. Geographical information system mapping and statistical analysis were used to compare the ratios of dietitians to people with type 2 diabetes across the states of Australia and by index of socio‐economic advantage and disadvantage in each state. RESULTS: An inequitable distribution of the dietetic workforce and that of the people with type 2 diabetes across Australia was demonstrated. An uneven distribution of the workforce is evidenced across states when compared to the distribution of type 2 diabetes prevalence; with New South Wales having a better ratio than Victoria and South Australia. Maps and prevalence data revealed the dietetic workforce was mostly concentrated in affluent urban centres whereas the type 2 diabetes prevalence rates were higher in rural and remote areas and in areas of lower socio‐economic status. CONCLUSIONS: This research highlights the need to address the limited access to dietetic intervention for those in rural, remote and disadvantaged areas which also have the greatest need. The financial burden of treating diabetic complications on the national health budget necessitates government initiatives. These should include better use of telehealth dietetic consultations and incentives for dietitians to work in rural, remote and disadvantaged areas.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Unhealthy diets are one of four main behavioral risk factors contributing to the majority of NCDs. To promote healthy eating and reduce dietary risks, the Australian Commonwealth Government established the Healthy Food Partnership (HFP). In 2018, the HFP consulted on proposed nutrient reformulation targets for 36 food categories to improve the overall quality of the food supply. This study assessed whether the proposed targets were feasible and appropriate. The HFP used a five-step approach to inform the proposed targets. We replicated and extended this approach using a different nutrient composition database (FoodSwitch). Products in FoodSwitch were mapped to the proposed HFP targets. The proportion of products meeting each target was calculated and the FoodSwitch data were compared with HFP data to determine whether the proposed target nutrient levels were appropriate or whether a more stringent target was feasible. Products from the FoodSwitch database (10,599) were mapped against the proposed HFP categories: 8434 products across 30 categories for sodium, 2875 products across seven categories for sugar, and 612 products across five categories for saturated fat. The analyses revealed that 14 of 30 proposed HFP targets for sodium, one of seven targets for sugar, and one of five targets for saturated fat were feasible and appropriate. For the remaining 26 reformulation targets, the results indicate that these target levels could be more stringent and alternative targets are proposed. The draft HFP targets are feasible but the majority are too conservative. If Australia is to meet its commitment to a 30 per cent reduction in the average population salt intake by 2025, these targets could be implemented as interim targets to be reached within two years. However, the opportunity exists to improve the food supply and strengthen the HFP's population health impact by adopting more ambitious and incremental targets. ...
Coalmining was a notoriously dangerous industry and many of its workers experienced injury and disease. However, the experiences of the many disabled people within Britain's most dangerous industry have gone largely unrecognised by historians. This book examines the British coal industry through the lens of disability, using an interdisciplinary approach to examine the lives of disabled miners and their families.The book considers the coal industry at a time when it was one of Britain's most important industries, and follows it through a period of growth up to the First World War, through strikes, depression and wartime, and into an era of decline. During this time, the statutory provision for disabled people changed considerably, most notably with the first programme of state compensation for workplace injury. And yet disabled people remained a constant presence in the industry as many disabled miners continued their jobs or took up 'light work'. The burgeoning coalfields literature used images of disability on a frequent basis and disabled characters were used to represent the human toll of the industry.A diverse range of sources are used to examine the economic, social, political and cultural impact of disability in the coal industry, looking beyond formal coal company and union records to include autobiographies, novels and oral testimony. It argues that, far from being excluded entirely from British industry, disability and disabled people were central to its development. The book will appeal to students and academics interested in disability history, disability studies, social and cultural history, and representations of disability in literature.
Unhealthy diets are a leading cause of death and disability globally. The WHO recommends Member States implement front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels to guide consumers towards healthier food choices, as part of comprehensive strategies to prevent diet-related non-communicable diseases. Interest in FOP nutrition labelling is increasing, but there is limited guidance for policymakers developing regulations necessary for effective implementation. A rapidly evolving evidence base, limited regulatory capacity and possibility of legal challenge by affected food industry stakeholders can create 'regulatory chill', whereby governments are dissuaded from progressive public health policymaking. We use a framework for analysing public health law and available best-practice guidance to evaluate key components of 31 FOP nutrition labelling regulations endorsed by governments up to June 2019. Analysis of regulatory form shows recent rapid uptake of label formats that are easier for consumers to understand and increasing use of mandatory legislation. However, policymakers must decide much more than whether to apply 'stars', 'traffic lights' or 'stop signs'. The substance of effective regulation must contain strategic regulatory objectives, clear specifications for displaying the label on pack, a valid scoring mechanism and a justified scope for including foods. While there are limited data on current practice, good governance of FOP nutrition labelling regulation also requires transparency and accountability in processes of label development, implementation, evaluation and enforcement to promote continuous improvement and withstand undue commercial interference. Whether developing new FOP nutrition labels or reforming existing ones, our findings support policymakers to design and implement best-practice, evidence-informed regulation.
The Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs) and Health Star Rating (HSR) front-of-pack labelling system are two national interventions to promote healthier diets. Our aim was to assess the degree of alignment between the two policies. Methods: Nutrition information was extracted for 65,660 packaged foods available in The George Institutes Australian FoodSwitch database. Products were classified core or discretionary based on the ADGs, and a HSR generated irrespective of whether currently displayed on pack. Apparent outliers were identified as those products classified core that received HSR amp;lt;= 2.0; and those classified discretionary that received HSR amp;gt;= 3.5. Nutrient cut-offs were applied to determine whether apparent outliers were high in salt, total sugar or saturated fat, and outlier status thereby attributed to a failure of the ADGs or HSR algorithm. Results: 47,116 products (23,460 core; 23,656 discretionary) were included. Median (Q1, Q3) HSRs were 4.0 (3.0 to 4.5) for core and 2.0 (1.0 to 3.0) for discretionary products. Overall alignment was good: 86.6% of products received a HSR aligned with their ADG classification. Among 6324 products identified as apparent outliers, 5246 (83.0%) were ultimately determined to be ADG failures, largely caused by challenges in defining foods as core or discretionary. In total, 1078 (17.0%) were determined to be true failures of the HSR algorithm. Conclusion: The scope of genuine misalignment between the ADGs and HSR algorithm is very small. We provide evidence-informed recommendations for strengthening both policies to more effectively guide Australians towards healthier choices. ; Funding Agencies|Australian Government Research Training Program (RTP) Scholarship; National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia [APP1106947]; NHMRC [APP1052555]; Centre for Research excellence [APP1117300]; County Council of Ostergotland
Abstract Background Poor diets are a leading cause of disease burden worldwide. In Australia, the Federal Government established the Food and Health Dialogue (the Dialogue) in 2009 to address this issue, primarily through food reformulation. We evaluated the Dialogue's performance over its 6 years of operation and used these findings to develop recommendations for the success of the new Healthy Food Partnership. Methods We used information from the Dialogue website, media releases, communiqués, e-newsletters, materials released under freedom-of-information, and Parliamentary Hansard to evaluate the Dialogue's achievements from October 2013 to November 2015, using the RE-AIM (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance) framework. We also engaged closely with two former Dialogue members. Our findings update a prior assessment done in October 2013. Results Little data is available to evaluate the Dialogue's recent achievements, with no information about progress against milestones released since October 2013. In the last 2 years, only one additional set of sodium reduction targets (cheese) was agreed and Quick Service Restaurant foods were added as an area for action. Some activity was identified in 12 of a possible 137 (9 %) areas of action within the Dialogue's mandate. Independent evaluation found targets were partially achieved in some food categories, with substantial variation in success between companies. No effects on the knowledge, behaviours or nutrient intake of the Australian population or evidence of impact on diet-related disease could be identified. Conclusions The new Healthy Food Partnership has similar goals to the Dialogue. While highly laudable and recognised globally as cost-effective, the mechanism for delivery in Australia has been woefully inadequate. Strong government leadership, adequate funding, clear targets and timelines, management of conflict of interest, comprehensive monitoring and evaluation, and a plan for responsive regulation in the event of missed milestones will be required if the new Healthy Food Partnership is to achieve its urgent public health goals.