International Maritime Security Law by James Kraska and Raul Pedrozo defines an emerging interdisciplinary field of law and policy comprised of norms, legal regimes, and rules to address today's hybrid threats to the global order of the oceans. Worldwide shipping commerce, fishing fleets, pleasure craft, and coastal states are exposed to the menace of offshore terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, piracy, smuggling, robbery, marine insurgency and anti-access threats. Land-based institutions and maritime constabulary forces operate within an increasingly integrated network that blends elements of humanitarian law, human rights law, criminal law, and law of the sea, with inspection regimes, commercial enterprise, and marine safety and environmental stewardship. The new authorities fuse together a global maritime partnership among states, international organizations and commercial interests to protect the maritime commons from the most dangerous risks and hazards
"The Free Sea offers a unique, single-volume analysis of incidents in American history that affected U.S. freedom of navigation at sea. The book spans more than 200 years, beginning in the Colonial era with the Quasi-War with France in 1798 and extending to contemporary Freedom of Navigation operations in the South China Sea. Through wars and numerous crises with North Korea, North Vietnam, Cambodia, Iran, Russia and China, freedom of navigation has been a persistent challenge for the United States, a nation reliant on open seas for economic prosperity, military security and global order"--
Shark populations throughout the world are at grave risk; some spe-cies have declined by 95 percent. The most recent IUCN (Interna-tional Union for the Conservation of Nature) assessment by the Shark Specialist Group (SSG) found that one-fourth of shark and ray spe-cies face the prospect of extinction. This article proposes an engage-ment plan to accelerate efforts by states and international organiza-tions to conserve and protect sharks worldwide. Sharks are found throughout all of the world’s oceans, and collec-tively they occupy an indispensable niche as apex predators at the top of the ocean trophic ecosystem. These fish function as an im-portant part of the system of checks and balances in the seas, helping maintain the delicate equilibrium among species. As a result of an-thropogenic activities, however, sharks face intense pressure to sur-vive. Overfishing, finning, and bycatch pose the greatest threats. The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)1 adopted a Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Sharks (Sharks MoU) in 2010. This group seeks to specifically focus on seven shark populations that migrate globally, posing unique challenges for protection. As the apex pred-ators of the oceans, sharks consume high levels of biomass to support their populations. As a result, their populations are relatively small and, therefore, even minor disturbances to their populations radiate and can have profound impacts. This creates a potential tragedy of the commons situation: as populations are decimated in certain areas of the globe, it impacts other regions and leaves fewer resources for everyone. The CMS Shark MoU seeks to protect seven specific spe-cies that would be served by a global group of signatories, which are countries that sign an agreement to work together to enforce policies that will aid population recovery. The signatory states first met in 2012, and there are significant challenges to overcome if the MoU is to serve as an effective instrument for the protection of sharks. This article proposes an engagement plan to accelerate these efforts to fashion a sustainable shark protection regime.