Africa has accounted for a disproportionate part of the peacekeeping efforts of the United Nations for at least the past fifteen years (Portuguese-speaking Africa being prominent in this). It seems clear that this situation results from difficulties in the implementation of the post-independence state -- whether as a result of externally generated pressures or of internal issues of political culture or both. This extensive intervention in African conflict has been motivated not only by humanitarian imperatives but also by the 'necessity' of maintaining the fabric of the 'Westphalian' system of states (a concern given greater urgency by the 'war on terror'). While there has been considerable discussion of 'African solutions for African problems' as an alternative, it is likely that UN peacekeeping will retain a prominent place in African conflict management for the foreseeable future. Tables. Adapted from the source document.
Portugal's intervention in the Guine-Bissau crisis of 1998-1999 was designed in part to assert a continuing special relationship with Africa & in part to give purpose to the Community of Portuguese-Speaking States (CPLP) as an intergovernmental organization. Ultimately, the undertaking illustrated the limits rather than the possibilities of peacemaking & peacekeeping by former colonial powers in Africa. These limits were set by differences of interests & perspectives within the CPLP itself; accusations of "neo-colonialism" from local interests; diplomatic tensions between Portugal & other external actors (notably France); & rivalry with the dominant regional organization (ECOWAS). Faced with these difficulties, & despite an initially promising engagement, the CPLP was eventually marginalized from the conflict resolution process in Guine. Adapted from the source document.
"Das Massaker in Srebrenica vom Juli 1995, bei dem rund 8000 Männer und Jungen ums Leben kamen, war der Tiefpunkt der Bemühungen der Vereinten Nationen zur Friedenssicherung nach einer Reihe von vorherigen Fehlschlägen anderer Friedensoperationen. Wie konnte es dazu kommen? Der Beitrag skizziert die Geschehnisse vor und nach der Einnahme der Schutzzone, untersucht die tiefer liegenden Ursachen des Versagens der UN-Mission UNPROFOR und bewertet die Lehren, die im Verlauf der letzten 20 Jahre gezogen wurden." (Autorenreferat)