This article investigates the impact of exposure to United States air force bombing during 1965–75 on the disability status of individuals in Vietnam in 2009. Using a combination of national census and US military data and an instrumental variable strategy which exploits the distance to the former North–South border as a quasi-experiment, the article finds a positive and significant impact of bombing exposure on district level disability rates 40 years after the war. The overall effect of bombing on the long-term disability rate among the Vietnamese population is highest among heavily bombed districts. Districts in the top bombing quintile experience a 25% relative increase in the rate of disability attributable to bombing compared with districts in the lowest bombing quintile. Effects are highest on the prevalence of severe disability and among cohorts before the war's end. A smaller, yet significant, effect is found among cohorts born after the war. The article finds further evidence of indirect channels through which bombing may have impacted on long-term disability including adverse effects on nutritional environment and human capital attainment. These findings add to the evidence from Vietnam and indicate that wars inflict costs on the health of human populations that last longer than those relating to economic growth and welfare.
The objectives of this study are to describe and analyze the out-of-work and out-of-school youth (ages 15-24) in the Europe and Central Asia2 (ECA) region. People who are out-of-work and out-of-school are referred to as NEET (Not in Employment, Education or Training). This study attempts to characterize the NEETs by age, gender, education and their activity status. The main findings of this study are listed are as follows: first, the authors find that in the post-2009 period the youth NEET rate for the ECA region was 19.60 percent, which is higher than the OECD youth NEET rate of 16 in 2011 (OECD 2013). Second, this study finds that the NEET rate prior to the financial crisis in 2009 was on the decline, and increased in the post-2009 period. Third, this study finds that the NEET rate for ECA is higher for women than for men for all years. However, since the financial crisis in 2009, the gender gap has declined from 4.64 in pre-2009 to 2.75 percentage points in post-2009, suggesting that young men were more adversely affected by the recession than women. Forth, this study finds that in the ECA region youth males are more often classified as NEETs but active in the labor market, and youth females are more often classified as NEETs but inactive in the labor market. Fifth, using a linear probability model, this study finds that individuals, who are 20-24 years of age, have a lower level of educational attainment and married females are more likely to be NEET. Also, individuals living in urban areas and with lower household sizes are less likely to be NEET. Sixth, another linear probability model was constructed using household budget surveys for six countries in ECA from 2009. The main finding from this model was that NEET youths tend to live in households with lower per capita consumption than their non-NEET counterparts. Seventh, there is an increase in the NEET (unemployed) rate after the crisis, while the NEET (inactive) rate stayed roughly constant.
Objective This article examines whether disability is a correlate of poverty when poverty is measured using (1) the official poverty measure; (2) the supplemental poverty measure (SPM); and (3) two multidimensional poverty measures created by the authors. Methods Data from the Current Population Survey are used to explore the relationship between poverty and disability for each measure. Differences across disability status were tested for statistical significance. Results Disability is associated with poverty, irrespective of the poverty measure under use. The gap in poverty rates between persons with and without disabilities is smaller when using the SPM as compared to the official poverty measure. The gap in poverty rates between persons with and without disabilities is highest when using multidimensional poverty measures. Conclusion Working-age persons with disabilities are more likely to be poor whatever the measure under use. They are a disadvantaged group in the United States. Adapted from the source document.