"This book examines contemporary transportation issues through the lens of various modes of transportation (aviation and airports, inland and short sea shipping, public transit and more) while also focusing on the importance of sustainability, urban planning, and funding. All chapters will provide managerial and policy focus to contemporary transportation issues."
Since 1990s, the number of states conflicts decreased and they started saying that the classical wars disappeared but at the same time, the number of internal conflicts increased dramatically. The end of colonial regime in Africa didn't bring peace to the region - the new wave of internal conflicts and civil wars overwhelmed the region. In the given article the authors analyze political and complicated socio-economic situation in the Tropical Africa, describe the conflicts in this zone, their typology, results and factors. The authors attempt to analyze internal and external causes of conflicts in the studied region, taking into account all elements of each conflict and their interdependence. The subject of the article is the conflict as the social element presenting the important part of international reality. It is noted that the crisis in the region influences every part of economic, social, and political spheres, so the solution is not possible without structural changes. In this connection, conflicts are the logical results of regional crisis as well as uncertain activity of international society. This situation provokes the large wave of migrants from the region and inside it. The countries the Tropical Africa can't guarantee any suitable level of life for the citizens, and the situation can't be resolved without active role of international community.
The following study looks at both qualitative and quantitative data collected from surveys of transit agency managers during and after the Great Recession to see if managers report changes in service provision arrangements in response to fiscal pressure. We investigate whether contracting out services is used as a method of cutback management. We find that the majority of agencies are unable to respond to current economic situation by changing service arrangements because of various and sometimes costly constraints such as state law, the level of competition in the bidding process, and length of contracts. Adapted from the source document.
Public agencies contract out to pursue a variety of goals. But, these goals cannot be realized if the performance of contractors is not assessed and monitored. This study examines the state of performance measurement and contract monitoring in the U.S. transit agencies. We focus on three research questions: (1) What monitoring capacity exists within transit agencies? (2) What monitoring methods are used by transit agencies? (3) What performance measures are tracked by transit agencies? We find monitoring units are common in a third of agencies in the study. Service and customer complaints are the most common performance measures, while penalties and liquidated damages are the most frequent form of penalties. Finally, we find that transit agencies utilize a variety of output and outcome measures to monitor contractors.