Alexander George made a seminal contribution to theories of preventive diplomacy, crisis management, deterrence, and coercive diplomacy. Although he made his contribution in the highly structured environment of the Cold War, his analysis of the close connections between positive and negative inducements, the importance of interests in shaping outcomes, and the dangers of threat-based strategies as substitutes for policy speaks to the central challenges of contemporary global politics. Adapted from the source document.
Part of a roundtable discussion held in San Francisco in 2008 at International Studies Association Annual Conference that identifies the gap between policymakers and academics via autobiographical notes from several distinguished scholars. In this section, Janice Gross Stein targets the unavoidable risks involved when social scientists attempt to advance policy. Her argument that corruption is unavoidable and scholars who are cavalier enough to attempt what she terms 'evolutionary hubris' must consider the option of abandoning their position if they admit that their ultimate policymaking decisions opposes or violates their moral principles. T. Cabrera