Transnational organized crime is part and parcel of the modern, globalized economy. The black market has irrefutable influence over both economic and political structures. It corrodes, corrupts, and coopts the institutions with which it comes into contact. Features that arise as a side effect of organized criminal activity also impact economic, social, and political developments. Isolated approaches aimed at counteracting criminal networks have proved ineffective, necessitating a fresh perspective on foreign policy-based solutions.A central difficulty of researching organized crime is the opaque nature of criminal networks, whose members prefer to operate in the shadows. The underworld does not owe accountability to any outsiders, nor do crime syndicates generally file tax returns. International bodies like the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime are forced to rely on the reports of member states, which are often subject to distortion. This makes accurate assessment of the extent and impact of organized crime difficult, to say the least.Part of what makes the black market difficult to combat is the malleable approach of criminal networks. They employ a variety of strategies to pursue their illicit activity and will quickly adapt to the given strength or weakness of their host state. These strategies manifest themselves as either evasion, confrontation, or infiltration of state institutions. All of these strategies undermine legitimate sociopolitical structures, making it imperative to implement effective foreign policy initiatives that fight the trade as a whole.
The Sino-Russian relationship has experienced several permutations in recent decades as both states have undergone radical domestic changes, including the end of Soviet communism and the abandonment of Maoism. This volume brings together scholars to address the current status of Sino-Russian relations in the political, military, energy and trade sectors. In this comprehensive new volume, authors offer a detailed account on the both the historical context and current status of relations between Russia and China and the geo-political realignments in Eurasia. This analysis of the evolving relatio.
1. Niklas Swanström & Ryosei Kokubun, Introduction 1. - Part I - Setting the Terminology: . - 2. Martina Klimesova, Moving from Crisis Management to Regional Cooperation: Clarifying Concepts 13. - Part II -Current Bilateral Relations . - 3. Hiroki Takeuchi, Sino-Japanese Relations: A Japanese Perspective 37. - 4. Fu Xiao, Sino-Japanese Relations: A Chinese Perspective 57. - 5. Peter Gries, Sino-Japanese Relations: The American Factor 71. - Part III - Multilateral Structures . - 6. Yasuhiro Takeda, Sino-Japanese Strategic Relations in Multilateral Regional Frameworks 85. - 7. Gui Yongtao, Major Powers' Policies toward North Korea and Implications for Sino-Japanese Relations 105. - 8. Niklas Swanström, Regional Structures in Northeast Asia: Whither and What? 129. - 9. Rumi Aoyama, China, Japan and Asian Regional Integration: From Bilateral to Multilateral? 145. - Part IV - Where are We Moving?. - 10. Ryosei Kokubun, Sino-Japanese Relations: From the "1972 Framework" to the "2006 Framework" 169. - 11. Shi Yinhong, Power, Soft and Hard: The U.S., China and Northeast Asia in the Financial Crisis and the North Korea Problem 193