This paper introduces the new dataset of Political Agreements in Internal Conflicts (PAIC) and presents its first application. PAIC captures the institutional provisions in political agreements concluded between 1989 and 2016. It provides information on 91 variables, along five dimensions: power sharing, transitional justice, cultural institutions, territorial self-governance and international assistance. First, the paper presents the data collection and coding procedures. Then it replicates Hartzell's and Hoddie's (2007, Crafting Peace, The Pennsylvania State University Press) seminal study on the relationship between power sharing and negotiated agreements, showing the long-term importance of a previously overlooked realm: commissions.
In recent years, transitional justice has become increasingly international in its scope. Due to ongoing animosities, lack of political will, and the absence of credible governing or judicial institutions, international organizations, donors, and NGOs advocate for transitional justice initiatives like truth commissions or special tribunals - alongside national actors, like civil society and victims groups. This book examines how international assistance affects transitional justice, and where power truly lies in making decisions about justice for victims of massive human rights abuse. The book finds that government donors typically lack strategies for transitional justice, they struggle with information deficits, and they are constrained by short-term approaches that do not give enough attention to what is often a weak and divided civil society sector. All the authors have both practical and scholarly perspectives on transitional justice. Country case studies are provided, including descriptions of the challenges in developing data on transitional justice financing.
Consociationalism: power-sharing and self-governance / Stefan Wolff -- Centripetalism: cooperation, accommodation and integration / Benjamin Reilly -- Power dividing: the multiple-majorities approach / Philip G. Roeder -- The diplomacy of conflict management / I. William Zartman -- Quiet diplomacy: preventing conflict through discreet engagement / Craig Collins and John Packer -- Imperfect but indispensable: the United Nations and global conflict management / Anoulak Kittikhoun and Thomas G. Weiss -- Regional origins, global aspirations: the European Union as a global conflict manager / Nathalie Tocci -- Limited capabilities, great expectations: the African Union and regional conflict management / John Akokpari -- Political engagement, mediation, and the nongovernmental sector / Katia Papiagianni -- Between theory and practice: Rwanda / Janine Natalya Clark -- The challenges of implementation: Guatemala / Virginie Ladisch -- The failure of prevention: Kosovo / Marc Weller -- A never-ending story: Cyprus / Christalla Yakinthou -- The potency of external conflict management: Northern Ireland / Adrian Guelke
This article explains how the EU became a key player in the Cyprus conflict and examines how local perceptions of the Union and its usefulness have affected its ability to manage the conflict. It argues that the EU undermined its own membership conditionality as a lever for the country's reunification through uncoordinated and mismanaged engagement in the pre-accession period. While the post-accession power balance shifted in favour of the Greek Cypriot community, neither side has been able to profit substantially from the new conditions. The post-accession status quo has led to widespread disillusionment with the realities of EU membership and is creating new resentments and antagonisms. EU membership for the Republic of Cyprus has given both protagonists the opportunity to use the Union to continue the dispute within a new 'European' rhetoric. (Ethnopolitics)