This article explores how variation in political embeddedness of social movement organizations (SMOs) influences the management of emotions. By variation in political embeddedness of SMOs, we mean variation in the strength and the number of ties between SMOs and the political establishment. By management of emotions, we mean efforts of SMO leaders to evoke particular emotions among SMO members. Using data from protest surveys conducted at demonstrations regarding climate change in Belgium and the Netherlands in 2009, we find that protestors who are members of a politically more embedded SMO are generally less angry than protestors who are members of a less politically embedded SMOs. The finding that this pattern is especially strong among SMO members who heard about the demonstration through an SMO, confirms the assumed role of SMO leaders in the management of emotions. Adapted from the source document.
On February 15, 2003, about 20 million people around the world protested against the imminent war in Iraq. In the Netherlands, 70,000 people marched in the streets of Amsterdam. This study focuses on the organization and mobilization processes preceding this event in Amsterdam. We trace how the organizers' attempts to form a coalition and the quarrels that ensued affected mobilization efforts, composition of the demonstration, media attention, and, subsequently, how and when participants were mobilized. We argue that, although infrequently studied, the specific ways that initial mobilization structures are formed are critical factors in the trajectory of mobilization. We use in-depth interviews with the organizers, newspaper content analyses, and survey data from participants to trace these effects. Adapted from the source document.
Using a multilevel dataset of seventy-five European street demonstrations (2009-13), we assess how demonstrators evaluate the interactions between the police and other demonstrators. In doing so, we study demonstrators' perceptions of the protest atmosphere. Understanding these atmosphere assessments is relevant, as demonstrators and other protest actors (e.g., police and the media) widely refer to the atmosphere (i.e., mood or climate) of protest events. To the best of our knowledge, scholars have not yet studied this aspect of protest participation. We start our study with a conceptualization and operationalization of protest atmosphere. Subsequently, we assess how demonstrators perceive atmosphere. Our analyses reveal that four types of protest atmospheres can be distinguished: harmonious, volatile, tense, and chaotic. We describe examples of these atmospheres and study why they are perceived. We find that the perception of atmosphere by demonstrators is influenced by individual characteristics (e.g., age) and demonstration characteristics (e.g., police repression). Adapted from the source document.
This article presents the theoretical underpinnings, design, methods, and measures of the project, Caught in the Act of Protest: Contextualizing Contestation. This effort examines Street demonstrations that vary in atmosphere, organization, and target. The project particularly focuses on participants, exploring who participates, and why and how people got involved. Data are collected before, during, and after a number of demonstrations, and captures the entire "demonstration moment." We develop standardized measures and techniques for sampling and data collection at the individual demonstrator level and at the contextual level. Evidence was gathered not only from the demonstrators but also from police, organizers, and the mass media. Data-gathering efforts were standardized through identical methods, questionnaires, fact sheets, and content analysis protocols. The CCC project examines demonstrations in Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Spain, Switzerland, and Sweden between 2009 and 2012. Teams from Italy, Mexico, and the Czech Republic joined the project at a later stage. The project has covered 61 demonstrations and 12,993 questionnaires have been completed to date. Adapted from the source document.
"Prompted by the 'affective turn' within the entire spectrum of the social sciences, this books brings together the twin disciplines of political psychology and the political sociology of emotions to explore the complex relationship between politics and emotion at both the mass and individual level with special focus on cases of political tension. A role call of contributors from across the world and at the forefront of academic research in both disciplines combine the historical, cultural and socio-psychological conceptualizations of the political sociology of emotions with the study of opinion-making and electoral choice that characterises political psychology which previous studies have considered in isolation. The result is a compelling collection that sheds new light on the role of emotion in politics through analysis that covers both the micro and macro levels and as such is important reading for students and scholars of both political psychology and the sociology of emotions"--