John Gray is now established as one of the UK's leading political thinkers. For over a decade he has been asssociated with the ideas and think-tanks of the New Right. In this book he presents both a criticism of the ideological excesses of New Right ideology and a radical critique of the New Right itself, developed from the standpoint of traditional conservatism. All the major thinkers and themes of the New Right are examined, together with many major issues of current public policy - such as the growth of the underclass, the future of the welfare state and the role of government in education a.
Beech (Fagus sylvatica), a dominant forest species in Central Europe, competes for nitrogen with soil microbes and suffers from N limitation under dry conditions. We hypothesized that ectomycorrhizal communities and the free-living rhizosphere microbes from beech trees from sites with two contrasting climatic conditions exhibit differences in N acquisition that contribute to differences in host N uptake and are related to differences in host belowground carbon allocation. To test these hypotheses, young trees from the natural regeneration of two genetically similar populations, one from dryer conditions (located in an area with a southwest exposure [SW trees]) and the other from a cooler, moist climate (located in an area with a northeast exposure [NE trees]), were transplanted into a homogeneous substrate in the same environment and labeled with 13CO2 and 15NH4+. Free-living rhizosphere microbes were characterized by marker genes for the N cycle, but no differences between the rhizospheres of SW or NE trees were found. Lower 15N enrichment was found in the ectomycorrhizal communities of the NE tree communities than the SW tree communities, whereas no significant differences in 15N enrichment were observed for nonmycorrhizal root tips of SW and NE trees. Neither the ectomycorrhizal communities nor the nonmycorrhizal root tips originating from NE and SW trees showed differences in 13C signatures. Because the level of 15N accumulation in fine roots and the amount transferred to leaves were lower in NE trees than SW trees, our data support the suggestion that the ectomycorrhizal community influences N transfer to its host and demonstrate that the fungal community from the dry condition was more efficient in N acquisition when environmental constraints were relieved. These findings highlight the importance of adapted ectomycorrhizal communities for forest nutrition in a changing climate.
In a reply to Reimund Schwarze's comment (see abstract) on his view of the role of common law (CL) in environmental issues (see abstract 95P10015), Sollner defends his claim that CL is not suited for this area. Contrary to Schwarze's critique, statutory liability is favored over CL liability, & it is argued that CL remains an inefficient means of dealing with the majority of large-number cases. Furthermore, it is suggested that the CL success stories cited by Schwarze would not have been possible without the simplified & standardized precedents established by statutory law. CL is also criticized for its inherent bias in favor of the polluter, regardless of previous outcomes. It is concluded that although the dichotomy of small- vs large-number cases may seem arbitrary, this distinction is essential to evaluating the historical & potential efficiency of common & statutory law cases. 6 References. T. Sevier