The language of conservation is changing: protecting biodiversity is no longer just about ethics and aesthetics; the latest buzzwords are commodities and consumers. Traditionally, conservation initiatives have talked up the benefits they will bring to the global community-saving species, habitats, ecosystems, and ultimately the planet. But conservation also has its costs, and these are usually borne by local people prevented from exploiting the resources around them in other ways. It is unfair to expect a localised minority to pick up costs that ultimately benefit a dispersed majority, argue conservation biologists. There has to be more money made available by concerned individuals, non-governmental organisations, national governments, and international bodies, and there need to be better ways to spend this money if conservation is to be effective, they say. Biodiversity is a commodity that can be bought and sold. We are consumers and must pay. (Excerpt from article) ; PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)
Is planting grass margins around fields beneficial for wildlife?Which management interventions increase bee numbers in farmland?Does helping migrating toads across roads increase populations?How do you reduce predation on bird populations?What Works in Conservation has been created to provide practitioners with answers to these and many other questions about practical conservation.This book provides an assessment of the effectiveness of 648 conservation interventions based on summarized scientific evidence relevant to the practical global conservation of amphibians, reducing the risk of predation for birds, conservation of European farmland biodiversity and some aspects of enhancing natural pest control and soil fertility. It contains key results from the summarized evidence for each conservation intervention and an assessment of the effectiveness of each by international expert panels. The volume is published in partnership with the Conservation Evidence project and is fully linked to the project's website where more detailed evidence and references can be freely accessed.
After applying the dilemma illustrated in Garrett Hardin's "The Tragedy of the Commons" to open-access fisheries, which face overfishing, the idea of conservation cartels is discussed. While they have been successful, these cartels are held as uniformly per se illegal arrangements under the Sherman Antitrust Act. Private property is seen as a potential solution, with such regimes manifesting in the form of collective or "common property" rights. However, despite the benefits of such a regime, the most common approach to fishery conservation is government regulation. It is argued that such regulation does little to fend off the tragedy of the commons. Antitrust litigation against marine conservation cartels inhibits the development of nongovernmental cooperative management structures that can address fishery problems. Further, the anticompetitive nature of these cartels does not preclude their working in the interest of the common good.
"Many popular leisure pursuits and consumption habits drive and deepen global capitalism - from whale watching in the Azores to sipping an ethically-sourced cup of morning coffee. But what are the consequences for society, nature, and conservation? Capitalism and Conservation presents an important critique of conservation's role as a central driver of global capitalism. This thought-provoking collection of case studies from around the world vividly demonstrates the increase in intensity and variety of forms of capitalist conservation. They also reveal a surprising shift in the conservation movement's own conception of these practices: their current mainstream view is the idea that capitalism can and should help conservation save the world. By examining the works of various corporate billionaires, powerful political coalitions and foundations, international elites and NGOs, and new tourist and business opportunities, the essays show that conservation and capitalism have intertwined to distribute fortune and misfortune in many new ways - with entirely new dynamics of profit creation and marginalisation. Capitalism and Conservation offers illuminating insights and critique of the realities and tensions of capitalism and conservation's coexistence in today's world"--
Europe is one of the world’s most densely populated continents and has a long history of human dominated land- and seascapes. Europe is also at the forefront of developing and implementing multinational conservation efforts. In this contribution, we describe some top policy issues in Europe that need to be informed by high-quality conservation science. These include evaluation of the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 network of protected sites, implications of rapid economic and subsequent land-use change in Central and Eastern Europe, conservation of marine biodiversity and sustainability of fisheries, the effect of climate change on movement of species in highly fragmented landscapes, and attempts to assess the economic value of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Broad policy issues such as those identified are not easily amenable to scientific experiment. A key challenge at the science–policy interface is to identify the research questions underlying these problem areas so that conservation science can provide evidence to underpin future policy development. ; Resumen: Europa en uno de los continentes m´as densamente poblados y tiene una larga historia de paisajes terrestres y marinos dominados por humanos. Europa tambi´en est´a a la vanguardia en el desarrollo e implementaci´on de esfuerzos de conservaci´on multinacionales. En esta contribuci´on, describimos algunos temas pol´ıticos relevantes que requieren informaci´on basada en ciencia de la conservaci´on de alta calidad. Estos incluyen la evaluaci´on de la efectividad de la red Natura 2000 de sitios protegidos, implicaciones del acelerado cambio econ´omico y el subsecuente cambio de uso de suelo en Europa Central y Oriental, conservaci´on de la biodiversidad marina y la sustentabilidad de las pesquer´ıas, el efecto del cambio clim´atico sobre el movimiento de especies en paisajes muy fragmentados e intentos para estimar el valor econ´omico de los servicios del ecosistema y de la biodiversidad. Temas pol´ıticos como los identificados no son f´acilmente abordados por experimentos cient´ıficos. Un reto clave en la interfaz ciencia-pol´ıtica es la identificaci´on de las preguntas de investigaci´on que subyacen en estas ´areas para que la ciencia de la conservaci´on pueda proporcionar evidencia para sustentar el futuro desarrollo de pol´ıticas.