The purpose of this essay is to analyze the impact of foreign trade upon the state and civil society in the first decades of Mexican independence. It will focus both on socioeconomic and political aspects of that impact. First, it examines the foreign trade at the end of the colonial period and the first decades of independence by reviewing available data. Second, it gives a brief description of some of the most outstanding consequences of this trade in respect to distribution of the imported goods, and unemployment related to the overflow of foreign products, especially textiles. Third, the essay outlines two types of state reaction: a more defensive reaction, pointing out certain aspects of fiscal and customs policy concerning foreign trade (protective tariffs); and a more offensive reaction by the state which promoted industrialization in order to become more independent from imports. This last aspect of industrialization, however, is discussed only in terms of foreign contribution (import of machinery, skilled workers/technicians, investment of "foreign" capital) to the process of modernization. Finally, the essay concludes by trying to provide an answer to the question of why the early attempts at industrialization failed.
"Detailed chronological presentation of the evolution of Chile's foreign policy during 1991. Highlights the capacity of Aylwin's democratic administration to reach important border, economic and political-diplomatic agreements with countries in the Americas, Europe, and the Pacific basin. Useful and comprehensive reference work"--Handbook of Latin American Studies, v. 57
"Excellent study by a team of Colombian social scientists of the recent evolution of Colombian-Venezuelan relations and their process of integration. Analyzes Colombian and Venezuelan roles in the other country's foreign policy, evolution of bilateral relations (1989-92), commercial relations, and negotiations and agreements on border, commercial, transportation, energy, environmental, and other issues. Concludes that integration process has lost momentum and recommends the reduction of the number and complexity of issues under discussion, while focusing attention on implementation of agreements already reached"--Handbook of Latin American Studies, v. 57
Sudan's transition process offers chances for conflict prevention and stabilization - core objectives of Germany's foreign policy in Africa. The international attention surrounding a visit by German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier to Khartoum in late February 2020 gives the civilian side of Sudan's transitional government a golden opportunity to push forward difficult reforms. Germany should support these efforts and the transition process through diplomacy, mediation, and development cooperation.
"Three geopolitical essays criticize Argentina's recent foreign policy from a nationalistic perspective. Believes that Menem's abandonment of traditional Peronist policies and his option for Western alignment were the result of a 'brilliant plot planned and executed by the Jewish-North American lobby and the British and Israeli secret services' and calls for a new role to be played by nationalistic army groups in formulating and implementing independent policies. Representative sample of the unbalanced views held by these military groups and their civilian allies who opposed Alfonsín's and Menem's foreign policies"--Handbook of Latin American Studies, v. 57
Delage, F.: The new context of Chinese foreign policy. - S. 27-31 Bustelo, P.: China's economic boom and its international impact. - S. 32-38 Sutter, R. G.: China's rise and the durability of US leadership in Asia. - S. 39-43 Wang Jisi: China's road to peaceful development and the United States. - S. 44-47