The word fragmentation refers to a splitting up of a verticallyintegrated production process such that the separatefragments can be traded on markets. This paper is concerned withinternational fragmentation, generally allowing gainsfrom a finer division of labor based on comparative advantage inseparate fragments. A discussion of how growth inoutput can encourage fragmentation because of the increasing returnsnature of the service links required to coordinateseparate production blocks, and how drastic reductions in the costsof these service links also encourages fragmentation isfollowed by a focus on internal income distribution. It is shownthat a country that loses a labor-intensive fragment of aprocess to international competition following a reduction in costsof service links may find its real wage rising. This isespecially possible in more capital-abundant countries.
'The Fragmentation of Being' offers answers to some of the most fundamental questions in ontology. There are many kinds of beings but are there also many kinds of being? The world contains a variety of objects, each of which, let us provisionally assume, exists, but do some objects exist in different ways? Do some objects enjoy more being or existence than other objects? Are there different ways in which one object might enjoy more being than another? Most contemporary metaphysicians would answer "no" to each of these questions. So widespread is this consensus that the questions this book addressed are rarely even raised let alone explicitly answered. But Kris McDaniel carefully examines a wide range of reasons for answering each of these questions with a "yes". In doing so, he connects these questions with many important metaphysical topics, including substance and accident, time and persistence, the nature of ontological categories, possibility and necessity, presence and absence, persons and value, ground and consequence, and essence and accident. In addition to discussing contemporary problems and theories, McDaniel also discusses the ontological views of many important figures in the history of philosophy, including Aquinas, Aristotle, Descartes, Heidegger, Husserl, Kant, Leibniz, Meinong, and many more