The prospect of the United Kingdom leaving the European Union (EU) in 2019 casts a shadow on the already unstable peace in Northern Ireland, the British exclave in the northeast of the island of Ireland. This report outlines the approach, framework conditions and course of the Northern Irish peace process - as well as the signs of its impending collapse. It also outlines the challenges that a "Brexit" poses for continued peaceful relations in Northern Ireland.
"While there is an increasing number of articles and studies identifying lessons from the record of UN peacebuilding operations, it is striking how little we know about the UN's very capacity for organizational learning on peacebuilding, and about learning in international organizations in general. This pilot study seeks to lay the foundations for an in-depth investigation of the UN's record on organizational learning. Our study is motivated by both, a research and a policy imperative. On the research front, studying organizational learning within the UN peacebuilding bureaucracy contributes to opening up the 'black box' of international organizations. So far, mainstream work in the discipline of International Relations (IR) has produced surprisingly few studies on the everyday workings of international organizations, let alone their ability to learn. Studying organizational learning calls for an interdisciplinary approach bringing together IR (including peace and conflict studies), public management and the sociology of organizations. This has the potential of advancing conceptual debates within the discipline of IR. The study proceeds in three steps. The first step surveys the relevant literature from different disciplines and concludes that peace research, IR and organization theory do not offer ready-made frameworks for the analysis of organizational learning in international organizations. Building on existing research, we identify key elements of a new framework starting with a definition of the key term, organizational learning: We define organizational learning "as a process of cognitive change through the questioning of the means and/or ends of addressing problems. The process manifests itself in the development and implementation of new rules and routines guiding the organization's actions." In a second step, we survey the evolution of the "infrastructure of learning" in the UN peacebuilding bureaucracy over the past 15 years. We hold that a number of factors (lack of will both within member states and the UN Secretariat as well as the lack of resources and appropriate incentive structures) contributed to the very slow recognition of the UN's learning needs. Major crises (such as the soul-searching after Rwanda and Srebrenica) plus the Brahimi Report in 2000 provided a certain momentum that brought the need to build up the UN's learning capacity higher on the agenda. Still, a lot of work remains to be done. In a third step, we present a list of variables that influence learning that need to be considered in a future in-depth study. This list of factors includes power, organizational culture, leadership, human capital, staff mobility, knowledge management systems, as well as access to external knowledge. Outlining an agenda for future research, we present a draft model of the learning process that includes 1) knowledge acquisition, 2) advocacy/ decision- making, and 3) institutionalization." (excerpt)
Christine Schweitzer: Introduction - Civilian peacekeeping. A barely tapped ressource (7-16); Rolf Carrière: The world needs 'another peacekeeping' (17-24); Tim Wallis: Best practices for unarmed civilian peacekeeping (25-34); Rachel Julians: Peacekeeping with nonviolence: protection strategies for sustainable peace (35-42); Christine Schweitzer: Humanitarian protection as an additional function of humanitarian, development and peace projects - or rather a task requiring experts? (43-52); Christine Schweitzer: The responsibility to protect: towards an expanded role for global civil society (53-64).
Hauptbeschreibung Die Verhandlungen um Frieden glichen im Europa der Frühen Neuzeit dem Aushandeln eines Geschäfts, das von Akteuren, spezifischen Umständen aber auch Zufällen beeinflusst wurde. Daher war die Gefahr missverständlicher Übersetzungs- und Deutungsoptionen fester Bestandteil von Friedensverhandlungen. Auch die "Ignoranz" spielte in der Politik und Jurisprudenz der Frühen Neuzeit eine wichtige Rolle. Häufig wurde Unwissen vorgetäuscht, um argumentative, politische und juristische Vorteile zu erlangen. In diesem Band versammeln sich Frühneuzeit-, Ideen-, Friedens-, Rechts.