For reasons of analytical tractability, new economic geography (NEG) models treat geography in a very simple way: attention is either confined to a simple 2-region or to an equidistant multi-region world. As a result, the main predictions regarding the impact of e.g. diminishing trade costs are based on these simple models. When doing empirical or policy work these simplifying assumptions become problematic and it may very well be that the conclusions from the simple models do not carry over to the heterogeneous geographical setting faced by the empirical researcher or policy maker. This paper tries to fill this gap by adding more realistic geography structures to the Puga (1999) model that encompasses several benchmark NEG models. By using extensive simulations we show that many, although not all, conclusions from the simple models do carry over to our multi-region setting with more realistic geography structures. Given these results, we then simulate the impact of increased EU integration on the spatial distribution of regional economic activity for a sample of 194-NUTSII regions and find that further integration will most likely be accompanied by higher levels of agglomeration.
ABSTRACT Asthma is multifactorial disease influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. A rapid increase in asthma in recent years cannot be attributed to changes in heritable factors but the focus of intrusions for the increased occurrence of asthma, therefore, should be on environmental factors. Asthma is extremely low in India’s healthcare facili-ties especially for the poor. Poor families cannot prevent asthma because of the risk inside their homes. In present study an attempt has been made to find the prevalence of asthma among women inside low income homes. This study is based on primary sources of data collected through questionnaire interviews from 1,200 low income/poor households of Aligarh city located in the Gangetic tract of North India. Since women spend long hours inside their homes and are more involved in household activities like cooking they were chosen as respondents. The study examines the socio-economic conditions, prevalence of asthma on the basis of symptomatic and clinical reporting, identifies the risks inside the homes (establishes the association between risks like cooking conditions (use of biomass fuels/chulhas, cooking in multipurpose room, non-ventilated kitchen), substandard housing (living in kutcha/semi-pucca houses), indoor crowding) and finally monitoring of indoor air pollutants (SPM (PM10, PM2.5) and gaseous pollutants (CO, CO2, SO2, NO, NO2)). The results show that prevalence of asthma among women is greater because they spend long hours inside their home and they are more exposed to indoor air pollutants and the risks inside the homes helps in triggering asthma.
Steven Spiegel's (2000) "Traditional Space vs. Cyberspace" exemplifies the divide between political science & political geography. In trying to incorporate geographic factors into his consideration of post-Cold War geopolitics, Spiegel equates his view with distance & less explicitly with territory. The attempt to position geography as central to international politics has failed once again because of the equation of spatial analysis with the field of geography. Ignorance & neglect of the place tradition, prominent in contemporary geography, is the most important factor in the continued failure of communication between Geography & International Relations. Adapted from the source document.
We decisively reject the hypothesis that geographical factors influence long-run only indirectly, through the quality of institutions. The direct influence of geography on per capita incomes is robust to the inclusion of a sub-Saharan Africa dummy and other tests. We obtain our results by replacing the usual instrument (settlers' mortality) by stronger instruments for institutional quality (latitude, the share of the country in the temperate climatic zone). We also show that settlers' mortality suffers from endogeneity with respect to institutional quality for early colonies, because of its dependence on nineteenth-century mortality data.