ABSTRACT Asthma is multifactorial disease influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. A rapid increase in asthma in recent years cannot be attributed to changes in heritable factors but the focus of intrusions for the increased occurrence of asthma, therefore, should be on environmental factors. Asthma is extremely low in India’s healthcare facili-ties especially for the poor. Poor families cannot prevent asthma because of the risk inside their homes. In present study an attempt has been made to find the prevalence of asthma among women inside low income homes. This study is based on primary sources of data collected through questionnaire interviews from 1,200 low income/poor households of Aligarh city located in the Gangetic tract of North India. Since women spend long hours inside their homes and are more involved in household activities like cooking they were chosen as respondents. The study examines the socio-economic conditions, prevalence of asthma on the basis of symptomatic and clinical reporting, identifies the risks inside the homes (establishes the association between risks like cooking conditions (use of biomass fuels/chulhas, cooking in multipurpose room, non-ventilated kitchen), substandard housing (living in kutcha/semi-pucca houses), indoor crowding) and finally monitoring of indoor air pollutants (SPM (PM10, PM2.5) and gaseous pollutants (CO, CO2, SO2, NO, NO2)). The results show that prevalence of asthma among women is greater because they spend long hours inside their home and they are more exposed to indoor air pollutants and the risks inside the homes helps in triggering asthma.
For reasons of analytical tractability, new economic geography (NEG) models treat geography in a very simple way: attention is either confined to a simple 2-region or to an equidistant multi-region world. As a result, the main predictions regarding the impact of e.g. diminishing trade costs are based on these simple models. When doing empirical or policy work these simplifying assumptions become problematic and it may very well be that the conclusions from the simple models do not carry over to the heterogeneous geographical setting faced by the empirical researcher or policy maker. This paper tries to fill this gap by adding more realistic geography structures to the Puga (1999) model that encompasses several benchmark NEG models. By using extensive simulations we show that many, although not all, conclusions from the simple models do carry over to our multi-region setting with more realistic geography structures. Given these results, we then simulate the impact of increased EU integration on the spatial distribution of regional economic activity for a sample of 194-NUTSII regions and find that further integration will most likely be accompanied by higher levels of agglomeration.
Revised and updated, this is a new edition of a core undergraduate resource on Political Geography. Unique in the teaching literature, Political Geography (published originally as Politics, Geography, and 'Political Geography') retains its focus on the social and cultural, while systematically over-viewing the entire discipline. The text explains: Politics, geography, and "political" geography: power, resources, institutions, and the history of political geography State formation: classical views as well as recent work on governance and governmentality Welfare state to workfare state: the restructuring of present state strategies Democracy citizenship, law: different models of democracy from Held to Mouffe; democracy citizenship, law in European and global context Electoral geography Identity and social movements: the relation between identity and political action Nationalism and regionalism: ethnicity, national identity, "otherness" Imperialism and post-colonialism: the theoretical literature from World Systems Theory to post-structuralist accounts Geopolitics: the political, economic, and strategic significance of geography, illustrated with examples from recent world politics.