The metaphor of "movement" has been applied in limited measure to indigenous action in Australia, and more to recent events (∼1960s and afterwards) than to earlier ones. This review characterizes movement in social-semiotic terms that allow consideratio
Discusses the state of indigenous movements in Latin America, arguing that, after making concrete policy progress, they are under increasing strain, particularly as the more successful ones are incorporated into formal politics where norms of competition & collaboration conflict with the logic of social movement activism & traditional indigenous self-governance. It is asserted that the regional resurgence of leftist & populist political parties has changed the political environment for indigenous movements. To demonstrate the variability of indigenous movement development, conditions in Bolivia & Ecuador are compared. The mixed results achieved by indigenous movements elsewhere in Latin America are then briefly addressed. It is concluded that while isolated victories are occurring, in general, indigenous movements are characterized more by retrenchment than by progress, with their popular support leveling off or declining. D. Edelman
Political developments in Latin America have driven academic interest in Indigenous movements. This phenomenon emerged most clearly in the aftermath of massive uprisings that led to a flood of publications framed as "the return of the Indian" to the public consciousness. Much of our understanding of the history and trajectory of social movement organizing is a result of publications in response to these protests. Contemporary political concerns continue to inform much of the cutting-edge research on Indigenous movements. These issues include relations between social movements and elected officials (often framed as debates over horizontalism versus authoritarianism) and whether the extraction of natural resources can lead to economic development, including intense discussions over neoextractivism and the sumak kawsay, the Quechua term for living well (with equivalent phrases in other Indigenous languages, often translated in Spanish as buen vivir).
On many measures, the indigenous movement in Ecuador has been the most successful in Latin America. This is particularly the case in political terms where they were key players until leaving the Gutiérrez cabinet. Their influence on the direction of economic policy has been minimal, however, and the rapid economic changes undertaken by the Correa administration since 2007 may marginalize them further. This paper examines Ecuador's checkered economic performance in the Washington Consensus period and the notable changes undertaken by Pres. Correa. These changes are then set in the context of the economic programs of the indigenous movement, specifically of CONAIE (Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador). This allows us to isolate several significant areas of overlap where the interests of the indigenous movement and of the Correa administration coincide and where collaboration on economic policy may be feasible.