The analysis of the case study was conducted by means of qualitative content analysis of documents and interviews of 14 stakeholders involved in the policy making processes. In-depth interviews to five policy makers were carried out, and the emerging elements were compared with the results of the content analysis of the policy documents. ; .
As the problem of climate change rises in public policy agendas around theworld, theneed for robust science to informpolicydesign also increases. And while the production of climate science has steadilygrown(NRC,2007,p.94; IPCC,2007), in theUnitedStates, its
Convergence on efficient institutions through political processes requires knowledge of the discounted net benefits from alternative political strategies. The processes that convey this data suffer from discontinuities that prevent estimates of forgone political opportunities. This causes path dependency that prevents convergence on efficient institutions. The empirical record supports this result. JEL Classification: D71, D83, O17, H11, P11, P21 Key Words: Political Reform, Economic Transition, Informational Discontinuity, Economic Performance, Path Dependency I thank Tyler Cowen, Randal Holcombe, James Buchanan, Gordon Tullock, Mario Rizzo, Charles Rowley, Don Lavoie, Richard Wagner, Rebecca Menes, and Erik Tallroth for commenting on drafts of this paper. The comments from Professors Cowen, Holcombe, and Buchanan were particularly helpful. The usual disclaimer applies. I Transition and Knowledge The inability of nations to converge on institutions that promote economic efficiency raises doubts about the efficiency of political reform. Chicago Public Choice theorists argue that efficient institutions and policies displace inefficient ones over time, especially within a democratic framework . This `Efficient Politics Hypothesis' predicts convergence on institutions that promote efficiency, yet this prediction clearly fails (Olson 1996, Knack 1996). Virginia Public Choice theorists argue that inefficient policies and institutions persist be cause of political failure . This does not explain non-convergence either. Chicago and Virginia theorists argue for general propositions about politics should produce relatively uniform results across nations. However, results vary greatly between nations . For instance, democracies like the US and India and dictatorships lik.
The role of knowledge in the policy process remains a central theoretical puzzle in policy analysis and political science. This article argues that an important yet missing piece of this puzzle is the systematic exploration of the political use of policy knowledge. While much of the recent debate has focused on the question of how the substantive use of knowledge can improve the quality of policy choices, our understanding of the political use of knowledge and its effects in the policy process has remained deficient in key respects. A revised conceptualization of the political use of knowledge is introduced that emphasizes how conflicting knowledge can be used to contest given structures of policy authority. This allows the analysis to differentiate between knowledge creep and knowledge shifts as two distinct types of knowledge effects in the policy process. While knowledge creep is associated with incremental policy change within existing policy structures, knowledge shifts are linked to more fundamental policy change in situations when the structures of policy authority undergo some level of transformation. The article concludes by identifying characteristics of the administrative structure of policy systems or sectors that make knowledge shifts more or less likely.