Governing in the extractive industries : an introduction / Lori Leonard and Siba N. Grovogui -- Tendencies in tension : resource governance and social contradictions in contemporary Bolivia / Tom Perreault -- Mining, criminalization, and the right to protest : everyday constructions of the post-neoliberal Ecuadorian state / Emily Billo -- Preserving illusions : the rule of law and legitimacy under the Chad Pipeline Project / Siba N. Grovogui -- "We own this oil" : artisanal refineries, extractive industries and the politics of oil in Nigeria / Omolade Adunbi -- Converting threats to power : methane extraction in Lake Kivu, Rwanda / Kristin Doughty -- Politics in the public sphere : ENGOs and oil companies in the international climate negotiations, 1987-2001 / Simone Pulver -- Preventing the resource curse : ethnographic notes on an economic experiment / Gisa Weszkalnys -- Illness, compensation, and claims for justice : lessons from the Choropampa mercury spill / Fabiana Li -- Wars of words : experts, oil, and environmental governance in Chad / Lori Leonard -- Post-script : mapping neo-extractive frontiers across Africa and Latin America / Brenda Chalfin
This new sourcebook admirably illuminates the spectrum of integrated policy interventions necessary to transform natural resource wealth into sustainable development, ranging from the allocation of resource extraction rights to the use and distribution of revenues. It recognizes and emphasizes the importance of the political and institutional context. The sourcebook ably breaks down the implications of the type of natural resource, describes the organization of the industry, and provides illustrative examples and useful citations from the literature. How individual governments, companies, and the world as a whole approach the management and governance of mineral and energy resources will be important in determining the success or failure of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Given the breadth of the SDGs and the targets therein, as well as the myriad challenges of natural resource governance, the new sourcebook and the community of researchers and practitioners that continues to grow around it will help to shed light on the path ahead
This study examines the relationship between political governance and extractive industry performance in Nigeria. It tends to know the contributions of political governance structures in the Nigerian extractive economy sector and whether the political sector has been able to achieve effective regulatory framework leading to revenue transparency which is the key factor in the attainment of sustainable development. In carrying out this research we made use of secondary data, mostly, the relevant literatures on the subject matter. Descriptive analytical approach was employed, while structural functionalism approach was adopted as the framework of analysis. The study revealed among other things that weak political institutions to undertake effective checks and balances and the virtual absence of regulatory framework created opportunistic gaps for predatory elites to institutionalized corruption in the oil extractive industry. The end result is loss of revenue, deep poverty and poor standard of living. Based on this, the paper recommended amongst others, the development of effective framework for transparency and accountability through strengthening of political governance, effective implementations of the Nigerian Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (NEITI) Act of 2007, and fundamental restructuring of the Nigerian political and administrative structure and socialization of the social mode of production. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n2s1p596
Latin America has seen recurrent episodes of resource nationalism, particularly in oil and gas, characterized by increased state control over the industry and investment expropriation. These episodes tend to occur in cycles induced by structural forces, in particular high resource prices and the end of successful investment cycles, increasing production and reserves. State-owned enterprises tend to play a dominant role in the region, which is magnified during the resource nationalism episodes. During such episodes, governments increase taxes and renege on contracts with private investors. Ideology and institutions can limit or exacerbate the intensity of these events in each country, but the cycle is largely driven by the structural factors. The reverse occurs with resource price busts and when a new investment cycle is needed, countries liberalize the oil sector and the state retreats.Between 2002 and 2012, the production boost produced by the liberalizations of the 1990s, combined with the oil price boom, led to a powerful wave of resource nationalism, including contract renegotiations and nationalizations, in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Even in Brazil, the country with the most successful and stable oil policy in the region, state-control increased. In contrast, after 2014, a new liberalization period has been prompted throughout the region by the decline in commodity prices, the financial weakness of state-owned companies, and the need for a new private investment cycle. Understanding the dynamics behind resource nationalism in the region is crucial for designing institutional frameworks that limit the cycles and induce long term resource policies that foster the development of the abundant resource endowments in the region.
The Concluding Statement from an October 2012 Global Seminar on the Role of Parliaments and Extractive Industries points to steps Parliaments can take to ensure that the development of mineral, oil and gas resources is a benefit rather than a curse for their societies. Parliamentarians from selected resource-rich Commonwealth jurisdictions shared experiences with experts from international organizations to identify problems and solutions. Adapted from the source document.
This report provides a baseline institutional and regulatory assessment of the oil and gas, mining (including jade and gemstones) and the hydropower sectors in Myanmar. As such the report is an input to Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) in Myanmar. However, it is not exhaustive with respect to all the sectors that may be considered under a scoping study for EITI .This report is the first in-depth study of the context within which EITI will be implemented in Myanmar, and can inform broader efforts to improve natural resource governance. This includes support for developing natural resource policy, law and regulations, fiscal regime design, tax administration (including support to the Large Tax Payers Office on the extractive industries sector), license management and cadaster systems, community development agreements, strategic environmental and social mitigation and management, training needs assessments and capacity building. The follow-up to this baseline assessment is a scoping study, which will determine which companies should be included within the first MEITI report and what payment flows they will need to report on.
Extractive industries (oil, gas, and mining) have the potential to generate significant wealth for developing countries and to serve as important catalysts for growth. They generate large revenues-through royalties, taxation, and exports-and create employment. In some cases, however, resource wealth is associated with political turmoil, deteriorating standards of living, civil conflict, and elite capture. The management's response to the Extractive Industries Review (EIR) and accompanying evaluations signaled a critical turning point in the World Bank Group's (WBG's) engagement in the sector, which had hitherto focused primarily on exploration and development activities, sector policy reform, and commercialization of state-owned enterprises. This publication presents four of the finalist case studies, selected on the basis of project: 1) scalability; 2) replicability; 3) innovation; and 4) level of multi-stakeholder collaboration. In an effort to better document and showcase the variety of ways in which country teams are working with different actors on the often sensitive topic of good governance in the oil, gas, and mining sectors, the World Bank Institute and the World Bank Oil, Gas and Mining Unit (SEGOM) initiated an internal case story competition in 2011.