The United Nations peacekeeping operations in the context of reviewing the UN's peacebuilding architecture (Carmen Parra, PhD, lecturer in international law, Universidad Abat Oliba CEU, Barcelona, Spain) -- Peacekeeping and conflict prevention : an old principle and a new responsibility (M. Esther Slamanca, MD, associate professor of public international law, Department of Public Law, University of Valladolid, Spain) -- Preventive deployment and early warning in the UN's agenda : the West African region as a scenario for international security ( (Jara Cuadrado, PhD candidate in international security, Instituto Universitario General Gutiérrez Mellado, National University of Distance Learning, Madrid, Spain) -- The future support of the armed forces in peacekeeping operations (Roberto Pereyra-Bordón, PhD, senior professor and faculty coordinator, Inter-American Defense College, Washington, DC, US) -- The attribution of wrongful acts to member states and/or international organizations in peacekeeping operations (Teresa Russo, PhD, aggregate professor of international organization, Department of Legal Science (School of Law), University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy) -- Is robust peacekeeping an answer to the spoiler problem? the case of the expanded UNIFIL (Javier Lion-Bustillo, PhD, part-time lecturer, Department of History of Thought and Political Movements, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain) -- The age of outsourcing : UN peacekeeping operations (Diego Badell-Sánchez, researcher at Esade Center for Public Governance, Esade Business and Law School, Ramon Llull University, Barcelona, Spain) -- The new legal challenges facing peacekeeping operations : the role of the ICC (Anna Oriolo, PhD, associate professor of international law, aggregate professor of international criminal law, Department of Legal Sciences, School of Law, University of Salerno, Salerno Italy) -- Cordons sanitaires as instruments for peacekeeping operations (Ana Cristina Gallego-Hernández, PhD, associate professor of public international law, University Centre San Isidoro, Attached University of Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain, and others) -- Peacekeeping and food security : agreements, clashes and challenges (Adriana Fillol, MD, and Gustavo González Geraldino, MD, researcher and assistant professor of public international law and international relations, Public International Law and International Relations Department, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain) -- The EU comprehensive approach to crisis management missions and operations (Carmen Márquez Carrasco, PhD, full tenured professor, Department of Public International Law and International Relations, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain) -- Multilevel operations in the management of asymmetric conflicts : from growing cooperation to a strategic partnership : reflections around the integrated stabilization operations in Mali and Central African Republic (Francisco Jiménez García, PhD, professor of public international law and international relations, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain) -- The role of regional organizations in peacekeeping : shared responsibilities, new roles, and old uncertainties (Lucas J. Ruiz-Díaz, PhD, Universidad de Granada, Grenada, Spain) -- NATO peace support operations : a brief institutional view (Andrés B. Muñoz-Mosquera and Nikoleta P. Chalanouli, legal advisor, director, of the Nato Supreme Headquarters Allied Power, Europe (SHAPE), and others) -- The protection and respect of the cultural heritage and diversity of host countries by United Nations peacekeeping operations : lessons learnt from Mali (Félix Vacas Fernández, associate professor of public international law and international relations, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid, Spain) -- World bank and post-conflict activities (Francesco Seatzu, JD, PhD, full tenured professor of international and European law, University of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy) -- Portugal and peacekeeping : a new foreign policy strategy? (Pedro Ponte E Sous, Department of Political Studies, New University of Lisbon, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities (FCSH-UNL), Lisbon, Portugal, and others) -- Peacekeeping and the global war on terrorism (Michel Liegeois, PhD and Murat Caliskan, MD, professor, Faculty of Economic, Social, and Political Sciences and Communication, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgic, Belgium, and others) -- Women in peacekeeping : challenges ahead and adopted measures (Alfonso J. Iglesias-Velasco, PhD, senior lecture of public international law, Department of Public Law and Legal Philosophy, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain) -- Gender mainstreaming in NATO peace support : impacts and challenges of gender in international peace and security policies (Iker Zirion-Landaluze, PhD, assistant professor of public international law and international relations, Department of Public International Law and International Relations, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, Spain) -- Peacekeeping and sexual violence : a complex mandate of limited effectiveness(Isabel Lirola-Delgado, PhD, professor of public international law, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago, Spain) -- Should we share? the United Nations and troop-contributing states facing international responsibility for the sexual crimes committed by peacekeepers (Raquel Regueiro, PhD, Department of Public International Law and Private International Law, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain) -- EU international crisis management and human rights (Pablo Aantonio Fernández-Sánchez, PhD, full tenured professor of public international law and international relations, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain) -- Operation Sophia : a point of inflection in the migrant smuggling in the Mediterranean Sea (María Isabel Nieto-Fernández, PhD, UNISCI/adjunct professor in political science and international relations, Social Science Departament, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain) -- Child protection in peacekeeping operations (Rocío Alamillos Sánchez, MD, and Laura García Martín, MD, PhD candidate, International Public Law Department, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain, and others) -- Peacekeeping operations challenges and economic impacts : a Nigerian perspective (Sani Safiyanu, Roy Anthony Rogers, PhD and Muhammad Danial Azman, PhD, Department of International and Strategic Studies , University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Developing states furnish the vast majority of UN peacekeeping troops, a fact academics and policymakers often attribute (at least partly) to developing states' supposed ability to derive a profit from UN peacekeeping reimbursements. In this article, we argue that this 'peacekeeping for profit' narrative has been vastly overstated. The conditions for significantly profiting from UN peacekeeping are in fact highly restrictive, even for developing states. We begin by highlighting two potent reasons for re-examining the peacekeeping for profit narrative: developing states emerged as the UN's principal troop contributors in a period of stagnant reimbursement rates when UN peacekeeping was becoming less financially attractive; and the quantitative evidence scholars have presented as supporting the peacekeeping for profit narrative is flawed. We then identify the scope conditions within which peacekeeping for profit provides a plausible explanation for a developing state's UN troop contributions. First, the deployment and its attendant reimbursements must be significant not only in absolute and per-soldier terms but also in relation to the state's total armed forces and military expenditure. Second, the state must have an exceptional ability, compared with other troop contributors, to benefit from UN reimbursements. The scope for generalized profit-making from either equipment or personnel contributions is limited by intense political pressure against reimbursement rate increases. Individual states can nevertheless make a profit if they (1) invest in inexpensive and old but functional equipment, especially if deployed with usage restrictions, and/or (2) limit the deployment allowances (rather than salaries) they pay their peacekeepers. We establish that only a limited subset of developing states meets the plausibility conditions for the peacekeeping for profit narrative – and many top UN troop contributors do not.
I advance and test a theoretical argument of how participation in UN peacekeeping affects the likelihood of coup attempts in troop-contributing countries (TCCs). The argument highlights the interplay between the economic incentives of militaries in poor TCCs and the UN's preference for contributors with stable civil–military relations. Fearing the loss of UN reimbursement funds, militaries for which such funds are important will avoid visible acts of military insubordination, such as coup attempts, that would place their future participation in UN peacekeeping at risk. I test this proposition against time-series cross-sectional data on 157 countries in the 1991–2013 period using panel regression and matching. The data show that countries where the armed forces are more dependent on peacekeeping revenues experience fewer coup attempts than comparable peers, even when taking coup-proofing measures and other alternative explanations into account. I also find that the coup-restraining effect is only observed in periods where member states contribute enough troops to award the UN a real choice over alternative contributors. The study introduces a novel theoretic logic, presents empirical results at odds with the existing literature, and suggests important policy implications with regard to UN vetting and standards for troop-contributing countries.