Studies of individual political behavior have not been well integrated with studies of the total pol'al process. We have learned much about how individuals make pol'al decisions, but know less about how these individual decisions affect politics on the level of the pol'al system. Conversely, not enough attention has been paid to the effects of the institutions of the pol'al system on individual pol'al behavior. One reason for this is that studies of individual pol'al behavior have been limited largely to the US, so that the varying effects of diff pol'al systems cannot be considered. Models of pol'al choice, it is suggested, should be expanded to take into account the effect of pol'al variables on individual pol'al behavior. IPSA.
An attempt to (a) locate the extent of the authoritarian predisposition in 2 nationwide samples, and (b) link such predispositions with certain types of political attitudes and behavior. The hypothesis was that high authoritarians would tend to participate less, and have less political self-confidence in politics than low authoritarians. The F-scale, modified by F. Sanford and the authors had been administered to 2 crosssectional, area probability samples, in addition to questions on opinions on foreign policy (N=1,470). The social profile of the authoritarian appears to be as follows: (1) younger people tended to be low, older people, high authoritarians, (2) those with limited education tend to be high, those with fuller education low authoritarian. (3) High authoritarianism occurs more frequently in Lc. (4) In the Mc the lower income group was more vulnerable, the higher income group was less vulnerable to authoritarianism. The same was true of Lc. (5) The highest concentration of authoritarians was found in the LLc and the poorly educated LMc. Analyzing the authoritarian's response to politics on the basis of the social profile it was found that (1) a signif. link exists between authoritarianism and isolationism though the isolationist is by no means always the 'reactionary.' (2) Authoritarianism is directly related to feelings of political ineffectiveness. (3) High authoritarians did not vote as frequently as the rest of the pop. (4) Authoritarianism was helpful in explaining candidate preference. L. P. Chall.
The burgeoning field of gender and political behavior shows that the way in which ordinary citizens connect to the democratic process is gendered. Gender differences in voting behavior and participation rates persist across democracies. At the same time, countries vary substantially in the size of these gender gaps. In contemporary elections, women tend to support leftist parties more than men in many countries. Although men and women vote at similar rates today, women still trail men in important participatory attitudes and activities such as political interest and discussion. Inequalities in political involvement undermine the quality of deliberation, representation, and legitimacy in the democratic process. A confluence of several interrelated factors (resources, economy, socialization, political context) work together to account for these differences. Today, scholars more carefully consider the socially constructed nature of gender and the ways in which it interacts with other identities. Recent research on gender and political behavior suggests that political context affects different kinds of women in different ways, and future research should continue to investigate these important interactions.
in: American political science review, Volume 46, Issue 4, p. 1003-1045
ISSN: 0003-0554 (print), 1537-5943 (electronic)
The five papers which follow were prepared during the summer of 1951 by the Social Science Research Council's Interuniversity Summer Seminar on Political Behavior. The seminar, which met at the University of Chicago, was attended by seven persons, who accept joint responsibility for the papers: Samuel J. Eldersveld, University of Michigan; Alexander Heard, University of North Carolina; Samuel P. Huntington, Harvard University; Morris Janowitz, University of Michigan; Avery Leiserson, Vanderbilt University; Dayton D. McKean, University of Colorado; and David B. Truman, Columbia University. Ralph M. Goldman met with the seminar as an associate, and later Elizabeth Wirth Marvick assisted in preparing some of the materials.The papers, one product of the seminar's work, were written to define and illustrate what the participants feel to be a significant contemporary development in political research. The first paper, "The Implications of Research in Political Behavior," outlines some of the requirements, characteristics, and implications of political behavior research. It is followed by plans for three research projects, "Party and Administrative Responsibility: Council-Manager Government," "Political Participation in a Metropolitan District: A Study of Group Influence on Political Activity," and "The Roles of Congressional Leaders: National Party vs. Constituency," drawn up in accordance with these specifications.