Nowadays Vilnius Region is a territory divided between Lithuania and Belarus. Many changes in political affiliation during last ten centuries caused that now it is still a region inhabited by many different nations: Lithuanian, Polish, Russian, Belarusian, Jewish etc. An existence of so many nations in this area caused lot of conflicts but also some forms of cooperation. During many years Lithuania and Poland was one country and lots of mutual historical facts are evaluated totally different by both sides. In 2004 Lithuania became a member of European Union what caused that part of historical Vilnius Region came under UE law. It has changed a situation of national minorities in this territory.
Since the end of the Cold War in 1990, "regions" and "governance" have become prominent themes in the social sciences and they have often accompanied each other in both political and academic circles. During this historical period, regions have developed in many ways, including the proliferation and deepening of regional integration schemes, including among others, the enlargement of the European Union (EU), the establishment of the North American Free Trade Agreement, the passage of the Organization of African Unity to the African Union, and the transformation of the Andean Pact into the Andean Community. While world regions were being established at the supranational level, sub-national regions also began to take form. The 1990s witnessed the development of regional economies, regional identities, regionalist ideologies, political parties, and social movements. In many cases, these transformations could not be contained by national boundaries. The notion of "borders" has recently been replaced by "border regions" as these areas have become accepted as socially constructed territories that transcend political and geographic delineations.
Since December 1991, the Republic of Ukraine has been a new independent state. Only after the renunciation of the Russian dominated Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (USSR) the declaration of independence of June 1990 was fully recognized by international law. The analysis of the conditions of its development includes geographical studies and a knowledge of Ukrainian research and its regional terminology. Therefore a study of the regional differentiation of the Ukraine is useful and necessary. For the study of names of regions it is useful to differentiate the terms by groups of origin: names related to natural phenomena, names related to administration and ethnical names. The term "Ukraine" that gained special significance in the past 150 years as name for the whole country belongs to the second group. This name, which means "on the border" or "borderland" was used for the Dnepr area between Kiew, Vinnitsa and Poltava until the end of the last century. Its origin dates back to the function of this area in the relationship of the Russian-Polish and Tatarian- Turkish dynasties. Since the beginning of the twentieth century -especially since 1917- the name has gained more and more regional and political significance. Regions with names related to natural phenomena are Polesye, Podolia, Pridneprovi and Donbass. Their definition is therefore not very exact (river basins etc.). "Donbass" is a constructed term, in spite of this classificaton. It has its origin in geology and mining. The regions of Wolin,Tawria and Krim, Sakarpatie, Saporoshie, Bessarabia, Bukovina and Galicia have administrative names. They are derived from the names of principalities and provinces although some of them also refer to peculiarities in the physical geography ("Saporoshie" means "beyond the rapids"). The Sloboshanshchina, the Boikovshchina and the Guzulshchina can be regarded as regions with ethnic names. They correspond with the settlement areas of free peasents and craftsmen as well as with those of the Boijks and Huzuls. The manyfold societal changes in the twentieth century led of course to new national and social conditions. Since the Ukrainian language offers the possibility to assign the surrounding area of a (larger) city an own name with the help of the syllable "-schtschina", the researcher will find further regional names.