Increasing employee motivation for environmental endeavors continues to be poorly understood. The literature suggests that management commitment, employee empowerment, feedback and review, and rewards may be significant predictors of environmental performance and hence successful environmental management system (EMS) implementation. This paper aims to ascertain the relationships between the aforementioned human resource factors with perceived environmental performance using a sample of middle and lower level employees in five manufacturing companies. All five companies are currently certified to ISO 14001 EMS and moreover four are recipients of the Malaysian Prime Minister’s Hibiscus Award (PMHA). A total of two hundred and twenty three survey responses were analyzed using the SPSS computer program version 16. The results of the regression analysis suggest that management commitment, feedback and review, and empowerment have a significant positive relationship to perceived environmental performance. However, the relationship between rewards and perceived environmental performance was statistically insignificant.
Abstract. Herring is an important stock as bait for lobster fisheries and a component of the food web of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. However, herring is very vulnerable to environmental variables such as temperature, food supply, and to the type of sediment on the bottom floor. Egg and larval stage herring are hypothesized to be very sensitive to low temperatures. This paper will analyze the correlation between temperature and two year-old recruitment stock, using satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data and stock size data from Northeast Fishery Science Center. Temperature is measured for specific areas that are defined as Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) designated habitat for Atlantic herring eggs. The preliminary results suggest that including environmental factors is necessary to understand the cycle of fluctuating stock and is a necessary variable in the production model for a fishery.
The purpose of this paper is to present a short introduction to the geopolitical importance and impact of energy resources on the definition of the legal status of Caspian body of water. The legal status of the water is regulated in accordance with international conventions or international law, and depends of the definition of water, as a sea or as a lake. The kind of water actually has a direct impact on the method of sharing of its natural resources. In the Caspian case, precisely because of its resources, (gas and oil), the issue of legal status is still open. In relation to this issue, research has shown that the position of five Caspian countries depends of their interest and benefits of the natural resources. The conclusion is that the energy resources are the primary factor for regulation of the legal status of Caspian body of water, whilst the pipeline network balances the world energetic stability. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n5p151
Abstract: This paper investigates the relative impact of regional energy production on the legislative choices of Russian Duma deputies on energy regulation between 1994 and 2003. We apply Poole’s optimal classification method of roll call votes using an ordered probit model to explain energy law reform in the first decade of Russia’s democratic transition. Our goal is to analyze the relative importance of home energy on deputies ’ behavior, controlling for other factors such as party affiliation, electoral mandate, committee membership and socio-demographic parameters. We observe that energy resource factors have a considerable effect on deputies ’ voting behavior. On the other hand, we concurrently find that regional economic preferences are constrained by the public policy priorities of the federal center that continue to set the tone in energy law reform in post-Soviet Russia.
This paper introduces the concept of Environmental Security in relation with the parameters of the environment which could affect the availability of essential resources for populations. Water availability and its management are evaluated in different regions of the world and in different environmental conditions and the role of international organisations on this issue has been taken into consideration. More specifically the content of two workshops sponsored by the Science Programme of NATO and dealing with water resources, environment and security are briefly reported. Specific attention has been paid to the case of the Mediterranean Region in which the natural conditions are stressed by several factors, including human initiatives, increased population, perspectives of climate change etc.
To monitor and assess resource use and in order to comprehend its environmental impact -and thus propose adequate policies- urban metabolism and Material Flow Analysis have become tools widely acknowledged and employed. However, due to the high level of aggregation of urban metabolism figures and to the fact that the urban system at stake is often considered as an abstract entity, it becomes hardly unfeasible to use and understand what is hidden behind these results. In fact, urban metabolism studies could be compared to “black boxes”. In order to illustrate why the urban metabolism results of Brussels Region are specific to Brussels and not to any other abstract urban system, this paper will identify the causal relations of how and where these material and energetic flows are consumed. Thus, this paper will perform a material and energy balance at a regional scale and in order to contextualize it, it will correlate the results with local factors such as such as socio-economic (demography, income, household size, GINI, …) and territorial organization (density, land use, …) indicators. To do so, energy and material flows were downscaled at municipality level. The outcomes of this paper will be on the one hand to produce the urban metabolism at two different spatial scales and on the other to perform a correlation with local factors identifying which have the highest influence on the consumption of resources. ; info:eu-repo/semantics/inPress
There is a widespread notion that organizational strategies are the dominant factors in the creation of human resources (HR) management policies in enterprises. This study examines the relation between an organization’s strategies, corporate HR policies and operating performance. At the end of the research, it was observed that (1) The high rate of change of the environment orientates establishments towards a more participative management perception, towards empowerment and flexibility. (2) While innovative differentiation orientates establishments towards participative management, empowerment, and proactive selection and placement policies, competitive differentiation influences only the empowerment factor in a sense of a provision of initiative. The cost leadership strategy does not have any meaningful effect on HR policies. The only meaningful influence of the focus strategy on the HR policies is on the proactive selection and placement policies, and this influence is a negative one. (3) When the results related with the harmony between the competitive strategy and the HR architecture are examined, it turns out that the participative management, the long term training policies, the proactive HR policies, and partly the generous compensation policies are more successful even under different strategies in comparison with the dictating, short term, reactive and ungenerous HR policies. In terms of quantitative performance, to select a differentiation strategy and apply HR policies that are participative, proactive and