Wenige Begriffe stehen in der internationalen Politik höher im Kurs als Soft Power - und ziehen mehr irrige Annahmen nach sich. Wenn es darum geht, das internationale Renommee eines Landes zu verbessern, greifen die meisten Glaubenssätze zu kurz oder sind schlichtweg falsch. Mit den Mitteln von PR und Marketing sind Imagewandel nicht zu erreichen. (IP)
This research explores the limits of the concept of soft power by critically examining the reconceptualization of soft power in contemporary Russia. It seeks to highlight the peculiarities of the Russian interpretation of soft power compared to the original Western approach. To this end, it argues that Russia has a dualistic perception of soft power. On the one hand, soft power is understood as an external threat to the country’s sovereignty and national security. On the other hand, soft power is seen as a great opportunity to increase the country’s efficiency in attaining its foreign policy goals, improve its international image and overall performance in the global arena.
Abstract. With the emergence of first political structures of the world, struggles between them gave rise to the concept of power. Since the ancient times, power has played an important role in the concept of international relations and made a significant contribution to the establishment of the discipline as an autonomous structure. The concept of power, which has always maintained its importance, has evolved in time and, for the time being, is known for its rather soft side. In this century, many academic studies that dealt with the soft side of the power have been published, however, while being mentioned in popular publications, the concept has not been favored in the academic publications in Turkey. With this dissertation that is the first study that deals with the soft power within the context of international relations, we intended to contribute to the filling of the void in the Turkish literature. For this purpose, we first discussed the concept of power and the soft power in every aspect. Afterwards, we analyzed the soft power potential of Turkey culturally, politically and within the frame of foreign affairs practices and essentially in the context of Middle East, Caucasus and Central Asia regions. As the soft power sources that may influence the national politics may vary for every country, we chose Azerbaijan as the model of this study and sought for an answer to the question, "How Turkey can possibly/efficiently have the soft power influence over Azerbaijan?". As the hypothesis of the study and the answer of the question, we considered the cultural link between these two countries would constitute the most important and effective soft power source. In the conclusion of the study, we interviewed a group of fifteen Azerbaijanis that consisted NGO members, journalists and academicians thus proved the hypothesis of the study.Keywords. Soft Power, Azerbaijan, Culture, Political Values, Foreign Affairs.JEL. B30, H19, H70, L31, P40.
Does soft power positively influence international affairs? -- Overview: Public diplomacy is changing the nature of international relations / Jan Melissen -- Soft power strengthens emerging powers / Francesca Centracchio -- Soft power has real impact around the world / David Ensor -- Soft power benefits strong states more than others / Melissa Nisbett -- Soft power cannot counter hard power / Michael Cecire -- There is no evidence culture shapes international affairs / Deborah Bull -- Is diplomacy an effective way to engage with hostile states? -- Overview: Soft power is one of many ways to counter hostile states / Robert McMahon -- Power can transform how countries see one another / Mark Leonard -- Soft power creates stronger relationship than hard power / John Weinbrenner -- Hard power is necessary to become a leading state / Allison Fedirka -- Soft power cannot replace hard power / Colin S. Gray -- Has social media had a positive influence on diplomacy? -- Overview: Social media is a new frontier for public diplomacy / Clifton Martin and Laura Jagla -- Social media opens opportunities for US-Middle Eastern relations / William Rugh -- Social media is an important tool of public diplomacy / Constance Duncombe -- Social media undermines diplomacy / Luis Gomez Romero -- Social media can be too informal to be effective / Michelle Bovée -- Can diplomacy and hard power be used together? -- Overview: The use of power requires many tools / Aigerim Raimzhanova -- Hard and soft power both have a role to play / William Inboden -- Diplomacy is strengthened by military power / Sen. Rand Paul and Isaac Applbaum -- Diplomacy is more effective than military force / Phyllis Bennis -- Hard power can undermine diplomacy / Nathan Gardels.
This paper analyses how Taiwan exercises "soft power" and uses public diplomacy to engage with the international community, and to compensate for the absence of formal diplomatic relations with major powers. The research suggests that Taiwan's strategies of international engagement are constrained by its external and internal political environments. The international system (structure) has locked Taiwan into a set of challenging arrangements over which it has little control or influence, while Taiwan's public diplomacy architecture and the activities organised and undertaken by its government agencies in Taibei and its representatives abroad (agency) reveal, at best, a misunderstanding of how Taiwan's soft power might be exercised more effectively. The strategic thematic choices of legitimacy (invoking Taiwan's international status) versus credibility (which in soft power terms offers the most benefit), and the decision to privilege cultural over political themes in international communications, all have profound effects on the success of Taiwan's soft power. (JCCA/GIGA)